Sunday, 24 August 2014


Orion is one of the well-known constellations. Orion constellation boundaries drawn in dotted yellow line.
A constellation of stars or constellation is a group of stars that appear to form a special configuration. In three-dimensional space, most of the stars that we observe not have relationships with each other, but can be seen as a group on the ball of the night sky. Humans have a very high ability to recognize patterns and throughout history have grouped the stars that appear close together into constellations. The composition is not an official constellation, which is widely known by the public but are not recognized by astronomers or the International Astronomical Association, also called asterism. The stars in the constellation or asterism rarely have a relationship astrophysics; they just happen to be appear close together in the sky visible from Earth and is usually very far apart.
Grouping the stars into constellations is actually quite random, and different cultures would have different constellations, although some are very easily recognizable usually often found, such as Orion or Scorpius.
International Astronomical Association has divided the sky into 88 official constellations with clear boundaries, so that every direction is only owned by one constellation only. In the hemisphere (hemisphere) to the north, most of the star constellation is based on the Greek tradition, passed down through the Middle Ages, and it contains the symbols of the Zodiac.
Various other patterns that do not officially exist together with constellations and called asterism, such as Pirates (also known in the USA as the Big Dipper) and Little Dipper

Chinese constellations.

Chinese constellations are the way of Chinese in the grouping of stars. This grouping is very different from the official grouping known today. This grouping is based on the development of the science of astronomy in the days of Ancient China. Observers at the time of Ancient China grouping the stars into 31 areas, called Three Limits (Three Enclosures, 三 垣, San Yuan) and Twenty Eight Big House (Twenty-eight Mansions, 二十八宿, Ershíbā Xiu). Three Limitations include areas close to the North Pole sky. The stars are located in this area will be visible throughout the year. Twenty Eight Big House covers an area of ​​the zodiac in the sky. Zodiac is the same as that of the 12 zodiac western astronomy. Unlike the western astronomy, Twenty Eight Big House reflects the movement of the Moon. Three Limitations and Twenty Eight Great Houses were then divided into 23 asterisms. Every star that looks set to be included into one of the asterisms asterisms and some have only one star.  Traditionally, a star named with its asterism combination with numbers.

Three Limitations.

Three Limitation Limitation consists of the Forbidden Purple (Purple Forbidden Enclosure, 紫微 垣, Zǐ Wei Yuan), palace limit the Supreme (Supreme Palace Enclosure, 太微 垣, Tai Wei Yuan) and Market Limitations in the Sky (Heavenly Market Enclosure, 天市 垣, Tian Shi Yuan). Limitation of the Forbidden Purple covers most of the northern part of the area in the sky. Based on the views of Ancient China, the Forbidden Purple limits are in the middle area of ​​the sky and surrounded by other stars.
Limitation of the Highest Palace is located in the east and north of the Forbidden Purple limits, while the Market Limits in the Sky is located in the west and south. Three limitations of each bounded by a "wall" where asterism with various shapes representing his name.

Star Mapping in China.

Ancient Chinese astronomers at the time of giving names to the stars that can be seen systematically, about 1000 years before Johann Bayer do it the same way. Essentially, every star was placed on an asterism, then added a number / numbers behind it, so the formula is the "name of the asterism" + "number / number". Giving figures / numbers does not depend on the magnitude of magnitude as was done by Johann Bayer, but rather to its position in the asterism.
For example, Altair 河鼓 二 given name in Chinese, is 河鼓 asterism its name (which means drum in the River). 二 is a given number (meaning "two"). Then it became "second star constellation / asterism Drum on the river".
But some stars are given names based on mythology and astrology. Like the example above, Altair also known as 牛郎星 or 牵牛星 (star rider Cow) in Chinese language, based on mythology riders Cow and Girl Weaver (one of the Chinese mythology). The star naming system also applies to the period of modern China. Thank you for reading this article.
Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: August 24, 2014 at 20:40
Tag : Constellations.

Facts about the stars that may not yet be known.

The sky is the most interesting to watch. A lot of the inspiration that arises from the observation of the sky, and people never run out of ideas to explore the sky, every day always just discovered new knowledge. There will be no end of knowledge about the sky, perhaps for human life on earth, we will always look for the secrets of the heavens which have not been revealed.
About the secrets of the heavens and the objects contained in it, there are celestial bodies most frequently observed that star man. In this universe there are billions of stars like our sun. However, the size and nature of its many differences and special characteristics. After collecting from various sources, there are some interesting facts about the star of which is:
A. Actually, only a very few number of stars we can see with the naked eye, the rest we can not see because it is far away and not bright enough. Of all visible stars apparently larger and brighter than the sun. More than 5,000 stars have brighter light that is the scale of more than magnitude 6, only a handful of very faint star has a size equal to the brightness of the sun, the rest are all bigger and brighter. Only 50 brightest star visible to the human eye from Earth, and the most bright star is Alpha Centauri star, 1.5 times more luminous than our Sun.
B. If anyone tells you that he has been counting the millions of stars just to see with the naked eye, immediately leave him, because what he said was a lie. In fact, you may not be able to see millions of stars in the dark night perfect though. You can not see a million stars in surface anywhere on earth. In the evening a truly remarkable sunny without a cloud, no moon and no light at all bullies, someone with a very good eyesight, may only be able to see the 2000-2500 star at a time.
C. Myth red color of a flame is the hottest color of the area, it turns out wrong. Red is the lowest temperature at which objects can be heated glow in visible light. When the heat is continuously improved color changes to white and finally to blue. So you see a red star in the sky that seem "cool" is the biggest star is not hot, blue stars are the hottest star.
D. In basically all star is a black body. In physics, a black body is an object that absorbs 100 percent of all electromagnetic radiation (light, radio waves, and so on). Like a brick oven with a painted black interior and only has a small window. All the light that shines through the windows is absorbed by the interior of the oven and not reflected outside the oven. It is a perfect absorber. This definition is in accordance with the conditions of a perfect star to have a very good star silencer. However, the amount of energy absorbed by the star is not proportional to the amount of energy emitted. That is, the star is a black body shining with great brilliance. In comparison reverse occurs in the Black hole sun, the amount of energy absorbed is greater, it is because the weight of very massive stars.
E. There is no green stars, although there are claims from observers star looks green, including Beta Librae (Zuben Eschamali). Most observers do not see the one green except the telescope optical effects. In physics this can be explained by the theory of the optical spectrum through. The fact that, of having a common color, from low temperature to a higher temperature, ie red, orange, yellow, white and blue. So there is no green stars.
F. The sun is a star "dwarf". For those of us who used to think the Sun as a star "normal", begin to change. But the good news is, that our sun is still young. In general, the size of starting age of "dwarf," "Giant" and "super-giant" (supergiants). The next stage is decay, supernova and star death. So technically, the Sun is a dwarf star, which continues to expand.
G. Black holes do not "suck" ?? Many people often describe as a black hole that sucks the hole and eat all the things around him. And it is a common concern for mankind, consider the black hole as a threat to the future existence of the earth when it was too close to him. But in fact, for some reason, black holes are generally not "suck." This is not only different definitions, such as the workings of a vacuum cleaner, not the same as how black holes pull matter. In the vacuum cleaner, the fan produces a vacuum so that outside air pressure becomes larger, pushing air into it, bringing together the loose dirt and dust. In the case of a black hole, there is no suction process involved. Instead, the material is pulled into the black hole with gravitational attraction is very strong. In a way to visualize it, like falling into a hole. Gravity is a fundamental force of Nature and all the material has it. When something is pulled into the black hole, this process is more like a fish drawn by anglers. The difference may seem trivial, but from the point of view of physics, it is fundamental. So black holes do not suck.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: August 24, 2014 at 17:54
Tag : Facts about the stars that may not yet be known.


Stars are celestial bodies that emit light. There is a pseudo star and a real star. Pseudo star is a star that does not produce its own light, but reflects light received from another star. The real star is a star that produces its own light. In general designation of outer space is the object that produces its own light (real star).
According to the science of astronomy, star definition is:
"All massive objects (with mass between 0.08 to 200 solar masses) which was and never carry energy generation through nuclear fusion reactions. "
Therefore, white dwarfs and neutron stars that have not emit light or energy is still considered as a star. The closest star to Earth is the Sun at a distance of about 149,680,000 kilometers, followed by Proxima Centauri in the constellation Centaurus is about four light-years away.

History Observations. 

The stars have been part of every culture. The stars used in religious practices, in navigation, and grow crops. Gregorian calendar, which is used almost in all parts of the world, is the calendar of the Sun, based on the position of the Earth relative to the nearest star, the Sun.
Early astronomers Tycho Brahe successfully recognize as 'rising stars' in the sky (later called novae) show that the sky is not eternal. In 1584 Giordano Bruno suggested that the stars are actually other Sun-sun, and may only have planets like Earth in its orbit, an idea that had been proposed earlier by the ancient Greek philosophers such as Democritus and Epicurus. In the following century, the idea that the Sun is a star that is far reaching a consensus among astronomers. To explain why these stars do not provide the gravitational pull on the Solar System, Isaac Newton suggested that the stars were equally distributed across the sky, an idea derived from the theologian Richard Bentley.
Italian astronomer Geminiano Montanari record any changes in the luminosity of the star Algol 1667 Edmond Halley published the first measurements of the proper motion of a pair of "fixed" near, showed that they changed the position of measurements taken since Ptolemaeus and Hipparchus. Direct measurement of the distance of 61 Cygni conducted in 1838 by Friedrich Bessel using the parallax technique.
William Herschel was the first astronomer who tried to determine the distribution of stars in the sky. During the enumeration 1780an he did around 600 different sky regions. He then concluded that the number of stars steadily increased to a sky, the center of the Milky Way galaxy. His son John Herschel repeated the same work in the southern hemisphere sky and found the same results. In addition, William Herschel also discovered that some of the couple is not the stars that happened to be in the direction of the line of sight, but they are physically pair up to form a double star system.


The concept of constellations has been known since the time of Babylon. Ancient sky watchers imagined a particular pattern formed by the arrangement of a prominent, and relating it to a specific aspect of their nature or mythology. Twelve of this arrangement lies in the ecliptic line and the basis for astrology.
Many of the individual stars that stand out given the name of its own, particularly with Arabic or Latin names.
As some certain constellations and the sun, some stars also have their own mythology. For the ancient Greeks, some "stars", known as planets (Greek: πλανήτης [planētēs], wanderer), representing various important deities they are the source of the name for the planet Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Uranus and Neptune also are the gods of Greece and Rome, but has not been known in ancient times as the dim light. The name given by astronomers both next.
Approximately in 1600, the name is used to name the constellations of stars in the sky region. German astronomer Johann Bayer created a series of star maps that use Greek letters as the name for the stars in each constellation. After that numbering system based on the star right ascension was invented by John Flamsteed and added to the star catalog in his book "Historia coelestis Britannica". This numbering system will be known as

Flamsteed Flamsteed naming or numbering. 

The only internationally recognized authority in naming celestial bodies is the International Astronomical Union (International Astronomical Union, IAU). There are a number of private companies sell names of stars, which the British Library is an unregulated commercial enterprise. However, the IAU has severed ties with this commercial practice, and these names are not recognized and are not used by the IAU. One of the naming company is the International Star Registry so (ISR), which in the 1980s was accused of deceptive practices because it makes as if the names they give official. ISR practice that has been stopped is informally labeled as fraud and cheating and Consumer Affairs Department of the City of New York published a warning to the ISR as deceptive trade practices.


The energy generated by nuclear fusion of stars radiating into space in the form of electromagnetic radiation and particle radiation. Radiation emitted particles manifested in the form of stellar wind, the stream of free protons, alpha particles are electrically charged, and beta particles from the star's outer layers. There is also a fixed stream of neutrinos emanating from the star's core, although the neutrinos are almost massless.
Stars shine very bright due to the production of energy at the core, which combines two or more atomic nuclei and atomic nuclei to form a single heavier elements and releasing photons of gamma rays in the process. Once this energy reaches the star's outer layer, this energy transformed into other forms of electromagnetic energy that is lower frequency, such as visible light.
The star, which is determined by the frequency of the light seems to be the most powerful, depending on the temperature of the star's outer layers, including its photosphere. Besides visible light, stars also emit other forms of electromagnetic radiation that are invisible. Actually, the electromagnetic radiation of the whole electromagnetic spectrum includes, from the longest wavelengths of radio waves, to infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays to gamma rays and the shorter wavelengths. If the views of the total energy emitted by a star, not all components of the electromagnetic radiation has a significant amount, but all of these frequencies gives us insight into the physical star.
By using the spectra of stars, astronomers can determine the surface temperature, surface gravity, metalisitas, and the speed of rotation of a star. If the distance of a star is known, for example by measuring paralaksnya, then luminositasnya can be calculated. The mass, radius, surface gravity, and rotation period can be estimated on the basis of the model. (The mass of the stars in a binary system can be calculated by measuring the distance and speed of its orbit. Effects of gravitational micro-lenses are used to measure the mass of a single star).
By using these parameters, astronomers can also estimate the age of a star. The sun is the closest star to Earth.
Almost anything involving a star initially influenced by the mass, including essential characteristics such as luminosity and size, as well as the evolution, the age and condition of the end.


Stars are very diverse in size. In each panel in the figure above, the rightmost object appears as the leftmost object on the next panel. Earth is located in the right-most solar panels located on the first and second from the right in the third panel. Due to their remoteness from the Earth, all stars except the sun looks just like the shining points in the night sky when viewed with the naked eye, and flickering caused by the effects of the Earth's atmosphere. The sun is also a star, but it is pretty close to the earth so it looks like a disc in the sky and be able to illuminate the earth. Besides the sun, stars with the biggest size is R Doradus appears, that it was only 0.057 arcseconds.
Disc mostly angular diameter of the star is too small to be observed with optical telescopes existing earth, so interferometer telescopes are needed to produce the image of a star. Another technique for measuring the angular diameter of stars is through occultation. By precisely measuring the drop in the light of a star during the occultation of the month (or the increase in the light of the star when the star reappears), the star's angular diameter can be computed.
The size of a very diverse, ranging from neutron stars, which just a diameter between 20 and 40 km, until the supergiant star like Betelgeuse in the constellation Orion, whose diameter is about 650 times the diameter of the sun or about 900 million miles. However, Betelgeuse has a much lower density than the sun.


Pleiades, an open cluster in the constellation Taurus. These stars are moving together in space.
The motion of a star relative to the Sun can provide important information about the origin and age of the star, even on the structure and evolution of the surrounding galaxy. Component of the motion of a star consist of the radial velocity toward or away from the sun, and the so-called shift-sectional motion.
Radial velocity of a star is measured by the doppler shift of the spectrum lines and is expressed in units of kilometers per second. Proper motion of a star is determined through careful astronomical measurements in milliseconds of arc per year. By determining the parallax of a star, the proper motion can then be converted into units of velocity. Stars with high proper motion velocity likely is close to the sun, making it suitable for paralaksnya measured.
When the speed of the second movement known star space velocity relative to the Sun or the Milky Way can be calculated. Among the stars around us, it is known that stars a younger population I usually have a lower rate than population II stars are older. Population II stars have elliptical orbits are inclined to the plane of the Milky Way galaxy. Comparison of the kinematics of the stars around the sun also causes the discovery of a set of the most likely location is a collection of the same origin in giant molecular clouds.

Chemical composition. 

When formed, the stars in the Milky Way's mass is made up of about 71% hydrogen and 27% helium, and the remaining elements are slightly heavier. Typically the portion of heavy elements determined by measuring the amount of charge contained iron in stellar atmospheres, because iron is a common element and spectral absorption lines are relatively easy to calculate. Because the molecular clouds where stars form continuously enriched with elements heavier, measuring the chemical composition of a star can be used to determine its age. The portion of elements heavier can also be used as an indication whether a star has a planetary system or not.
Star with the lowest iron content ever measured is the dwarf star HE1327-2326, with an iron content of only 1 / 200,000 of the iron content of the sun. In contrast, metal-rich star μLeonis, which contains almost twice the sun belongs, are star-planet 14 Herculis, which contains nearly three times as belonging to the sun. There is also a peculiar chemical composition of stars, which shows the remarkable abundance of certain elements in their spectrum; especially chromium and rare earth metals.

Mass stars. 

One of the most massive stars known is Eta Carinae. With masses up to 100-150 times the mass of the sun, this star also has a life span of only a few million years. Research on Arches cluster shows that the upper limit of the mass of stars in the current era of the universe is 150 times the mass of the sun. The reason for this limit is not known for certain, but partly due to the Eddington luminosity, ie the maximum amount of luminosity that can pass through the atmosphere of without having to eject gas into space. However, a star named R136a1 in RMC136a star clusters, measured to have a mass 265 times the mass of the sun, making the limit is questionable.
A study showed that the stars in the star cluster R136 having mass greater than 150 times the mass of the sun formed by the collision and merging of massive stars from several adjacent binary systems; so that the stars are able to cross the line 150 times the mass of the sun.
Nebula NGC 1999 brightly illuminated by V380 Orionis with (center), a variable star with a mass about 3.5 times the mass of the sun. Part black sky is a big hole of empty space and not a dark nebula as previously thought.
The first stars formed after the Big Bang are likely to be larger than they are now, reaching up to 300 times the mass of the sun, even more, due to the absence of elements heavier than lithium in the womb. However, generation of population III stars are massive long-extinct and only theoretically.
With a mass only 93 times the mass of Jupiter, AB Doradus C, a friend of AB Doradus A, is the smallest known star is still doing nuclear fusion in its core. For stars with metalisitas similar to the sun, the theoretical minimum mass the star can have, but still be able to perform nuclear fusion in its core, is estimated to about 75 times the mass of Jupiter. However, if a star metalisitas very low, the minimum mass is about 8.3% of the solar mass, or about 87 times the mass of Jupiter, based on the latest research on the most dim stars. Smaller stars again called brown dwarf, which occupies a gray area that has not been clearly terdefenisi between stars and gas giants.
Large surface gravity of a star is determined by the diameter and mass. Giant stars have a surface gravity that is much lower than main sequence stars, while the opposite for compact stars such as white dwarfs. Surface gravity affect the appearance of a star spectrum, with higher gravity causing widening of the absorption lines.

Magnetic field. 

The magnetic field of a star is generated in the interior of stars where convective circulation occurs. This movement of conductive plasma functions like a dynamo, generating magnetic fields that cover the entire star. The strong magnetic field of a star depends on the mass and the content of the star, and the amount of magnetic surface activity depends on the speed of rotation of the star. This surface activity produces star spots, which is the surface area of ​​the star with a strong magnetic field but the temperature is much lower than other surface regions. Corona arch is a curved magnetic field and reaches up into the corona from active regions star. Star bursts are bursts of high-energy particles are emitted due to the same magnetic activity. Young stars that spin rapidly tend to have high levels of surface activity due to the influence of the magnetic field. This magnetic field can also affect the stellar wind, which acts like a brake and gently slow the rate of rotation of a star along with aging. Therefore, the stars are older like the sun, has a rotation rate and a lower surface activity. The level of surface activity with a slow rotation rate tends to be a cycle, and sometimes none at all for a certain period of time.
During the Maunder minimum, for example, the sun showed virtually no sunspots activity for 70 years.


The rate of rotation of the star can be determined through spectroscopy, or can be measured more accurately by observing the rate of rotation of the star spots. Young stars can have a high rotation rate, to above 100 km / s measured at its equator. B-class star Achernar, for example, has a rotation speed of about 225 km / s or more at the equator, causing its equatorial regions protruding out so that this star has equatorial diameter that is more than 1.5 times the distance between the poles. The rate of rotation is just below the critical rotation rate of 300 km / s that will cause a shattered star. Instead, the sun rotates only once during 25-35 days, with the equatorial rotation rate 1.99 km / s. Wind magnetic field and slow the rate of rotation of the stars on the main sequence is significantly along with the development of a star in the main sequence.
Degenerate star is a star that has shrunk into a compact mass and resulted in a high rate of rotation. However, the rotation rate is still lower than that predicted by the law of conservation of angular momentum. Most of the star's angular momentum disappeared as a result of mass loss by stellar wind. Even so, the rate of rotation of the pulsar can be very high. Star Nebula Crab pulsar at the center, for example, rotates 30 times a second. The rotation rate of the pulsar will gradually slow due to the emission of radiation.


The surface temperature of a main sequence star is determined by the rate of energy in its core income is generally estimated from the color index of the star. Usually the temperature is expressed by the effective temperature, which is the temperature when a star is considered as an ideal black body that radiates energy with the same luminosity in the entire surface. So the effective temperature is only a picture, because the temperature in a star higher if getting close to the point. The temperature in the core region of a star reaches up to a few million degrees celsius. The temperature of a star determines the rate of ionization of various elements in it, also specify the nature of the absorption line spectrum. Surface temperature, absolute magnitude and absorption properties of Spectrograph used as the basis for classifying stars.
Massive stars in the main sequence can be up to 50,000 ° C temperature. Being smaller stars, like the sun, has a surface temperature of several thousand degrees Celsius. Red giants have relatively low surface temperatures of about 3,300 ° C, but this star has a high luminosity due to extensive outer surface.


Most were between the ages of 1-10 billion years. Some stars may even approach the 13.8 billion years old-the observed age of the universe. Oldest stars found to date, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be 13.2 billion years old.
The higher the mass of a star, the shorter its age anyway. This is mainly due to the high mass star will have a high pressure also on the point which causes it to burn hydrogen more rapidly. The stars are the most massive stars last an average of only a few million years, while stars with a minimum mass (red dwarfs) burn their fuel very slowly and last tens to hundreds of billions of years.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: August 24, 2014 at 17:12
Tag : Star.

Sunday, 30 March 2014

You Know About the B-2 Spirit?

Aircraft B-2

Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit stealth fighter technology is used for the bomber (Stealth Bomber). The plane is made of thermoplastic material that is used by the U.S. Air Force War. "Northrop Grumman is the prime contractor for the U.S. Air Force stealth bomber B-2 Spirit."
This aircraft was first introduced to the public, and first flew in 1988, July 17, 1989, as still active. The aircraft is not able to fly quickly and easily destroyed if visible. Therefore, Northrop Grumman has developed a new radar absorbent coating to preserve the characteristics of the B-2's stealth drastically, to reduce maintenance time. The new material, known as an alternate high frequency material (AHFM), applied by four robots are controlled independently.
The mission of this aircraft is to destroy the enemy base or military bases, without visible radar. Excess B-2 is able to penetrate the air defense shield (radar) is advanced. The aircraft is capable of attacking all targets from an altitude of up to 50,000 feet (16.656 kilometers) from the sea level, with a range of more than 6,000 nm without refueling (unrefueled) and over 10,000 nm with one refueling, giving the ability to fly to any point in the world within a few hours.

In the state of aircraft B-2

situation in the plane.

Twenty-one pieces of the B-2 Spirit was first delivered to Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri, in December 1993. In the first three years of service, the operational B-2 Spirit, reached a level of reliability of 90%, when a surprise attack. An assessment published by the USAF showed that two B-2 Spirit with precision weaponry can do the job of 75 conventional aircraft.
For a mission abroad, has also developed a system that can be transported to a hangar various destinations, in various countries. A hangar system, has a length of 126 feet, 55 feet wide and 250 feet tall. The first hangar hangar has been established at Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean.

B-2 aircraft to refuel in the air.

refueling in the air.

Before the development of this hangar system, each performing a mission akli depleted, B-2 Spirit must return to Whiteman AFB, for the maintenance of the "stealth" of the aircraft. B-2 Spirit is used for the first time during Operation Iraqi Freedom in March / April 2003. In March 2005, the squadron of B-2 was placed for the first time to Andersen Air Force Base in Guam, with aircraft B-1 and B-52, to support and strengthen the defense of the USAF Command Asia Pacific. Others focused on the war in the Middle East.
Demons were often seen in the area of ​​Kosovo, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Making a triangular futuristic aircraft that spent USD 737 million - 2.2 billion per unit. These costs make the stealth bomber became the most expensive military aircraft in the world.
B-2 Spirit is a carrier aircraft bombs (bomber) with stealth technology (stealth) is a mainstay of the U.S. Air Force for long-range operations. Aircraft including the B-2 Spirit strategic bomber as one that has been recognized by the military ability.  Unique capacities , including its stealth characteristics, allow the bombers to penetrate enemy defenses once the most stringent, and with high precision can drop bombs on targets belonging to the opponent vital. Permissibility B-2 Spirit has been shown in military operations in Iraq a few years ago.
Strategic bomber B-2 Spirit is only owned and operated by the U.S.. This stealth aircraft is a blend of cruising the farthest, the largest carrying capacity weapons, and stealth technology that is unmatched by any air force. Without refueling, the B-2 Spirit is able to take flight as far as 6,000 nautical miles, and with one refill of fuel in the air, the plane can travel a distance of 10,000 nautical miles. With a payload capacity of 20 tons of conventional and nuclear weapons, and send it in the right weather conditions, the B-2 has the ability to change the outcome of a conflict only with a bombing mission.
Bomber B-2 Spirit has been developed since 1978 under the program ATB (Advanced Technology Bomber). The new ATB program became public in 1981. And on November 22, 1988, a new public also knows about the existence of manufactured strategic bomber Northrop Grumman is then made its maiden flight on July 17, 1989.
As a strategic bomber that is difficult to beat, B-2 Spirit certainly has a very high price, even becoming a military aircraft with the most expensive price ever in the history of military aviation. Informed that the price of one unit of B-2 Spirit is a U.S. $ .2,4 billion. Operational and maintenance costs no less expensive. For one hour flight, the aircraft needed treatment for 124 hours.
The U.S. military initially planned to purchase 132 units of the B-2 Spirit bomber. But collided with a very expensive price, only 21 units were realized purchase. After the accident 1 unit B-2 Spirit at Andersen Air Base in Guam, the number of B-2 that strengthens the U.S. Air Force to 20 units. Currently 19 unit B-2 Spirit is based in Whiteman air base. Meanwhile, one unit of B-2 Spirit is in the air base Edward, Calif., for software development and armament systems.

History Grey. 

As with other aircraft, despite having all the advanced equipment, B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber never experienced a period of gray. Super sophisticated B-2 bomber, crashed after a failed takeoff from Andersen Air Base in Guam, Pacific Islands, Saturday (23/02/2008) at around 10:45 local time. This is the first anti-aircraft radar incident dubbed "Demon" who fall since its introduction to the public in 1988.
Capt. Sheila Johnston, a spokesman for Air Combat Command at Langley Air Force Base Center of Virginia, USA, said, in an incident that two pilots reportedly managed to get out of the plane, who was not carrying ammunition, and survived.
Both crew members were withheld his name from combat units 509. "We are investigating the cause of the accident immediately," said Johnston.
According to Maj. Eric Hilliard of Hickham airbase, Hawaii, the B-2 weighs 152.6 tons that crashed shortly after take-off with three similar aircraft. The accident occurred when one of the three aircraft capable of driving 716 miles per hour it suddenly slid down. This is their flight schedule last four months after operation. As a result of this accident, three other aircraft directly secured in Guam. "Before the B-2 stealth aircraft crashed, actually there is one other stealth aircraft successfully took off. However, the aircraft's call to the base some time after the incident," he explained. But this plane resumed operations in April 2008.

Pentagon spokesman Geoff Morrell confirmed the incident immediately to the Secretary of Defense at the time, Robert Gates. But, Gates was on a visit to some Pacific countries, including Indonesia, declined to give further details.


United States Air Force
509th Bomb Wing, Whiteman Air Force Base (Current, 19 aircraft)
13th Bomb Squadron
393d Bomb Squadron
394th Combat Training Squadron
412th Test Wing, Edwards Air Force Base (Current, one aircraft)
419th Flight Test Squadron, Edwards Air Force Base
53D Wing, Eglin Air Force Base (past)
72D Test and Evaluation Squadron, Whiteman Air Force Base
57th Wing, Nellis Air Force Base (past)
325th Weapons Squadron, Whiteman Air Force Base
715th Weapons Squadron (inactivated)


Orthographically projected diagram of the B-2 Spirit.
Data from Global Security.
Common traits.
Crew: 2
Length: 69 ft (21 m)
Wing span: 172 ft (52.4 m)
Height: 17 ft (5.2 m)
Wing area: 5,000 ft ² (460 m²)
Empty weight: 158,000 lb (71.7 t)
Weight content: 336.500 lb (152.6 t)
Maximum takeoff weight: 376,000 lb (171.0 t)
Engine: 4 × General Electric F118-GE-100 turbofans, 17,300 lbf (77 kN) each

Maximum speed: 410 knots (760 km / h, 470 mph)
Range: 5,600 nm (10,400 km, 6,400 mi)
Limit ceiling: 50,000 ft (15,000 m)
Wing loading: 67.3 lb / ft ² (329 kg / m²)
Thrust / weight: 0.205

2 internal bays for 50,000 lb (22,700 kg) of ordnance.
80 × 500 lb class bombs (Mk-82) mounted on Bomb Rack Assembly (BRA)
36 × 750 lb CBU class bombs on BRA
16 × 2000 lb class weapons (Mk-84, JDAM-84, JDAM-102) mounted on Rotary Launcher Assembly (RLA)
16 × B61 or B83 nuclear weapons on RLA.
So, thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
author : Sunarno.
name : Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished : Maret 30, 2014 at 12.49
Tag : You Know About the B-2 Spirit?

Tuesday, 11 February 2014

Did You Know How to Work Gasoline Engine Four Steps?

How petrol engine four stages of work ... "Blue is the gas-water mixture, red is an explosion of gas-water mixture, and black is the exhaust ..."

Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: February 11, 2014 at 16.38

Tag ; Did You Know How to Work Gasoline Engine Four Steps?

Thursday, 30 January 2014

Do You Own The Most Extreme Body Parts in the World?

Cathie Jung: World's Smallest Waist -15 inches. 

The woman with the smallest waist in the world.

The above image is the original, without any engineering. Cathie Jung's tiny waist measures just 15 inches (38 cm), making the shape of her body like an hourglass. Corset Queen, so he named himself, was wearing a tight corset for decades to establish her up so, and appeared in the Guinness Book of World Records in 2007 on the part of the body. He is currently the record holder for the smallest waist in the world that is still alive, while the record for the smallest waist ever held by Ethel Granger who had deceased with only a 13 inch waist size.

Svetlana Pankratova: World's Longest Legs - more than 4 feet. 

The woman with the longest legs in the world.

A Russian woman Svetlana Pankratova, according to the Guinness World Records, has the longest legs than any woman in the world. He is not the tallest woman in the world, but the legs have length 132 cm (4 feet and 4 inches. Due upper body the same as a woman's body shape on average, it has a height of 196 cm (6 feet and 5 inches). He also has size big feet, size 13 (U.S.) / 46 (EU), making it difficult to find the right shoes. since 1992 to 1995, Pankratove playing basketball in the United States, and in 2008 she appeared in Trafalgar Square in London with He Pingping, the smallest man in the world, to promote the Guinness World Records book edition 2009.

Vivian Wheeler: World's Longest Female Beard -11 inches. 

 Vivian Wheeler is the owner of the world's longest beard for a female.

With the longest hair in the beard (11 inches or 27.9 cm), Vivian Wheeler is the owner of the world's longest beard for a female. His father insisted that he shave his beard when he was 7 years old, but since 1993 Vivian Wheeler has never let his beard grow.

Lui Hua: World's Largest Hand - his left thumb measuring 10.2 inches. 

Chinese man named Lui Hua suffers disorder known as macrodactyly.

  Chinese man named Lui Hua suffers disorder known as macrodactyly. When he was hospitalized in Shanghai in July 2007, his left thumb measuring 10.2 inches and his index finger measured about 12 cm. on July 20 surgeons spent 7 hours to reduce the size of Liu's fingers and thumb. The doctors throw 11 pounds of flesh and bone in the operation. The second operation is scheduled to take place soon.

Annika Irmler: World's Longest Female Tongue - 2.7 inches. 

A German student named Annika Imler with 7 cm long tongue is amazing.

A German student named Annika Imler has 'lick' so he could record in the Guinness Book of Records with a length of 7 cm tongue is amazing. 12-year-old student from Tangstedt, near Hamburg this, can lick the ice cream from the bottom of the cone - while her friends have to use a finger.

Lee Redmond: World's Longest Finger Nails - until he lost the fingernails in a car accident. 

Lee Redmond, a woman from Utah who has never cut his nails, and have elongated and up to 8.65 meters (28 feet and 4.5 inches)

 Lee Redmond, a woman from Utah who has never cut her fingernails since 1979, has been taking care of her nails elongate and carefully up to 8.65 meters long (28 feet and 4.5 inches), and recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as the owner of the longest finger nails dii world. Unfortunately, in February 2009 she lost her nails in a car accident.

Radhakant Baijpai: World's Longest Ear Hair - up to 10 inches. 

Radhakant he has the longest ear hair in the world.

A trader from India Radhakant Baijpai certainly have a purpose in life: to make sure that he has the longest ear hair in the world. Radhakant crowned by Guinness as the world record holder for the longest ear hair in the world in 2003 ago, when his hair already has a length of 13.2 cm. After years of caring for the hair, hair Radhakant now reached 25 cm. Now he is waiting for the Guinness judges to ensure that he has made a new record for that category.

Mehmet Ozyurek: World's Longest Nose - 4.5 inches. 

Mehmet Ozyurek, born in Turkey in 1949, has been confirmed as the owner of the world's longest nose.

  Mehmet Ozyurek, born in Turkey in 1949, has been confirmed as the owner of the world's longest nose. His nose has a length of 4.5 inches (8.8 cm) when last measured on July 6, 2007. Currently he lives in Artvin, Turkey.

Devendra Harne and Pranamya Menaria: Total Finger Hand and Foot Most - 25. 

Both are originally from India and has a number of fingers and toes as much as 25 pieces (12 fingers and 13 toes) as a result of polidaktilsme.

Same with Pranamya Menaria, Devendra Harne share the title as the number of toes and fingers in the world. Both are originally from India and has a number of fingers and toes as much as 25 pieces (12 fingers and 13 toes) as a result of polidaktilsme.

Frank Ames: World's Longest Eyelashes - 3.7 inches. 

Frank Ames who lives in Saranac, New York to record his name as the owner of the longest eyelashes of 9.6 cm.

Frank Ames who lives in Saranac, New York to record his name in the Guinness Book of World Records for his pair of lashes which has a length of 9.6 cm. He decided to put themselves forward as the record holder in 2003, unfortunately at that time that category does not exist. After contacting officials of the Guinness Book of World Records, he claimed the new record. "I do not know why my lashes grow like this, but this is the reality," he told reporters.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: January 30, 2014 at 17.14
Tag : Do You Own The Most Extreme Body Parts in the World?

This is Women World's Longest Legs owners.

Svetlana Pankratova with the longest legs in the world.

This woman has a fairly long legs, long legs because this woman holds the women's record with the longest legs in the world. Woman named Svetlana Pankratova have unusual foot size with the other woman, Svetlana Pankratova leg length reaches 1, 3 Meters which makes him crowned as the female owner of the longest legs in the world. His record in the Guinness Book of World Records as the owner of the longest foot when the foot gets Svetlana Pankratova has a length of 1, 2 Meter. With long legs so the overall height Svetlana Pankratova reached 1.8 meters. Have long legs for Svetlana Pankratova was not easy he sometimes teased often in many people because of his long legs. "It's not easy at all because the kids love teasing you," said the Russian-born woman. "They love to tease because I looked different. So I was often teased because of the high. "
Although Svetlana Pankratova feet long, but he was not the tallest woman in the world record for the tallest woman in the world is now held by Yao Defen with a height of 2.3 m. Thank you for reading this article.  Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.'s-longest-legs-owners.html
DatePublished: January 30, 2014 at 16.25
Tag : This is Women World's Longest Legs owners.