Natural gas is often also referred to as the Earth gas or marsh gas, is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane CH4). He can be found in oil fields, gas fields of Earth and also coal mines. When the gas is rich in methane produced by anaerobic bacterial decomposition of organic materials other than fossil, then it is called biogas. Sources of biogas can be found in marshes, rubbish dumps, as well as human waste and animal shelters.
Chemical composition.The main component in natural gas is methane (CH4), which is a chain hydrocarbon molecules shortest and lightest. Natural gas also contains molecules heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10), as well as gases containing sulfur (sulfur). Natural gas is also a major source of helium gas source.
Methane is a greenhouse gas that can create global warming when released into the atmosphere, and is generally regarded as a pollutant rather than a source of useful energy. Even so, the methane in the atmosphere reacts with ozone, producing carbon dioxide and water, so that the greenhouse effect of methane released into the air is relatively only lasted a moment. Sources of methane derived from living things mostly from termites, animal (mammal) and agriculture (estimated emission levels around 15, 75 and 100 million tons per year, respectively).
Methane (CH4) 80-95
Ethane (C2H6) 5-15
Propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) <5
Nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and water can also be contained in natural gas. Mercury can also be contained in a small amount. The composition of natural gas varies according to the source of the gas fields.
Organosulfur mixture and hydrogen sulfide are contaminants (impurities) from the gas main to be separated. Gas with a significant amount of sulfur impurities called sour gas and is often referred to as "acid gas (acid)". Natural gas that has been processed and will be sold are not tasteless and odorless. However, before the gas is distributed to end users, the gas is usually given odor by adding thiol, that can be detected in the event of a gas leak. Natural gas that has been processed in itself is not dangerous, but without the process of natural gas can cause respiratory strangled because it can reduce the oxygen content in the air at levels that may be harmful.
Natural gas can be dangerous because it is highly flammable and potentially explosive. Natural gas is lighter than air, so it tends to easily spread in the atmosphere. But if he is in a confined space, such as in the home, the gas concentration can reach the point of explosive mixture, which if ignited a fire, may cause an explosion that can destroy buildings. Dangerous methane content in the air is between 5% to 15%.
The explosion of compressed natural gas in vehicles, generally not worrying because it is lighter, and the concentration outside the range of 5-15% which can cause an explosion.
The energy content.
Combustion of one cubic meter of natural gas commercially produce 38 MJ (10.6 kWh).
The storage and transportation of natural gas.Natural gas storage method is done with "Natural Gas Underground Storage", which is a huge room in the basement which is commonly known as the "salt dome" the domes in the case of underground reservoirs of natural gas resources that have been depleted. It is very appropriate for the country four seasons. In the summer when the use of gas for heating is much reduced (low demand), natural gas is injected through the gas compressors into the underground vaults. In the winter, where there is significant demand, natural gas stored in underground vaults issued for distribution to consumers in need. For companies (operators) provider of natural gas, this is very helpful to maintain the operational stability of the supply of natural gas through a natural gas pipeline.
Basically the natural gas transportation system include:
Transport via pipelines stripe.Transportation in the form of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) with LNG tankers to transport over long distances.
Transportation in the form of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), both on the mainland by road tanker and the tanker CNG at sea, for near and intermediate distances (between islands).
In Indonesia, Oil and Gas Downstream Regulatory Body (BPH Natural Gas) has developed a Master Plan "Parent Network System Integrated National Gas Transmission". In a time not long natural gas pipeline system would stretch concatenated from Aceh and North Sumatra, Central Sumatra South Sumatra-Java, Sulawesi and Kalimantan. Currently gas pipelines in Indonesia are owned by Pertamina and PGN and still localized separately in certain areas, for example in North Sumatra, Central Sumatra, South Sumatra, West Java, East Java and East Kalimantan.
LNG carrier can be used to transport liquefied natural gas (liquefied natural gas, LNG) across the ocean, while the tanker can carry gasa liquefied or compressed natural gas (compressed natural gas, CNG) in close proximity. They can transporting natural gas directly to end-users or to a distribution point, such as a pipeline for further transport. It is still costly for additional facilities for gas liquefaction or compression at the point of production, and penggasan or decompression at the point of end-users or to the pipeline.
Natural Gas Utilization.Broadly speaking, the utilization of natural gas is divided into 3 groups:
Natural gas as fuel, such as fuel Power Gas / Steam, industrial fuel light, medium and heavy, automotive fuel (CNG / NGV), as city gas for household needs of the hotel, restaurant and so on.
Natural gas as a raw material, among other raw materials fertilizer plants, petrochemicals, methanol, plastic raw materials (LDPE = low density polyethylene, LLDPE = linear low density polyethylene, HDPE = high-density polyethylen, PE = poly ethylene, PVC = poly vinyl chloride , C3 and C4 her for LPG, its CO2 for soft, dry ice food preservatives, artificial rain, industrial iron castings, welding and light a fire extinguishing agent.
Natural gas as an energy commodity for export, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG.
Cutting-edge technology has also been able to utilize natural gas for air conditioner (AC = Air Conditioning), as used in the airport of Bangkok, Thailand and some college buildings in Australia.
Natural gas in Indonesia.The utilization of natural gas in Indonesia began in the 1960s in which the production of natural gas from natural gas fields in the Hall of PT Stanvac Indonesia, South Sumatra sent through a gas pipeline to the fertilizer plant Pusri IA, PT Fertilizer Sriwidjaja in Palembang. The development of natural gas utilization in Indonesia increased considerably since 1974, where Pertamina began supplying natural gas through a gas pipeline from natural gas fields in Prabumulih, South Sumatra to the fertilizer plant Pusri II, III and Pusri Pusri IV in Palembang. Because it was too old and inefficient, in 1993 Pusri IA closed, and replaced by Pusri IB built by the sons of the Indonesian nation itself. At that time Pusri IB is the most modern fertilizer factory in Asia, because it uses high technology. In West Java, at the same time, in 1974, Pertamina also supplies natural gas through a gas pipeline from natural gas fields off the coast (off shore) and the Java sea Cirebon area for fertilizer plants and medium and heavy industries in the region of West Java and Banten Cilegon . Natural gas pipeline that runs from Cirebon area towards Cilegon, Banten supply of natural gas, among others, to cement plants, fertilizer plants, ceramic factories, steel mills and power plants and steam gas.
In addition to domestic demand, natural gas in Indonesia also exported in the form of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas)
One of the largest natural gas producing regions in Indonesia is Aceh. Natural gas resources of the region, the city of Lhokseumawe managed by PT Arun NGL Company. Natural gas has been produced since 1979 and exported to Japan and South Korea. Additionally in Krueng Geukuh, Nanggroe Aceh Baroh (of the district) also contained Iskandar Muda Fertilizer Plant urea fertilizer plant, the raw material of natural gas.
Gas reserves of the world.Total reserves of the world (which has been confirmed) was 6.112 trillion square feet. List of top 20 countries with the largest gas reserves in units trillion square feet (trillion cu ft) is:
Russian = 1.680
Iran = 971
Qatar = 911
Saudi Arabia = 241
United Arab Emirates = 214
USA = 193
Nigeria = 185
Algeria ly = 161
Venezuela = 151
Iraq = 112
Indonesian = 98
Norwegian = 84
Malaysia = 75
Turkmenistan = 71
Uzbekistan = 66
Kazakhstan = 65
Dutch = 62
Egypt = 59
Canada = 57
Kuwait = 56
Total reserves of 20 countries above was 5.510 trillion square feet and total reserves of countries outside the top 20 in the above is 602 trillion square feet.
List of the largest gas fields in units (* 109 m³):
Asalouyeh, South Pars Gas Field (10000-15000)
Urengoy gas field (10000)
Shtokman field (3200)
Karachaganak field, Kazakhstan (1800)
Greater Gorgon (1100)
Shah Deniz gas field (800)
Tangguh gas field, Indonesia (500)
Ormen Lange (400)
Jonah Field (300)
Barnett Shale (60-900)
Maui gas field (?)
Do you know of radiation.In physics, radiation describes any process in which energy moves through a medium or through space, and eventually absorbed by other objects. Lay people often connect said ionizing radiation (eg, as occurs in nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, and radioactive substances), but can also refer to electromagnetic radiation (ie, radio waves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, and X ray), acoustic radiation, or to other processes clearer. What makes the radiation is that the energy radiates (ie, moving outward in straight lines in all directions) from a source. This geometry naturally leads to a system of physical units of measurement and the same applies to all types of radiation. Some radiation can be harmful.
Ionizing radiation.Some types of radiation has enough energy to ionize particles. In general, this involves an electron that is 'thrown' from atomic shell electrons, which would give a charge (positive). It is often interfere in biological systems, and can lead to mutations and cancer.
This type of radiation generally occur in the radioactive decay of radioactive waste and garbage.
Three main types of radiation discovered by Ernest Rutherford, alpha, beta, and gamma rays. The radiation was found through a simple experiment, Rutherford using radioactive sources and found that the rays produce hit three different areas. One of them being positive, one of them being neutral, and one of them negative. With this data, Rutherford concluded that radiation consists of three beams. He gave a name derived from the first three letters of the Greek alphabet, namely alpha, beta, and gamma.
Radiation alpha (α).Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits alpha particles, and thus change (or 'decays') into the atomic mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less.
However, due to the high particle mass so that it has less energy and lower distance, alpha particles can be stopped by a sheet of paper (or skin).
Radiation beta (β).beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (electron or positron) is emitted.
Radiation beta-minus (β⁻) consists of an electron that is full of energy. This radiation is less ionized than alpha, but more than gamma rays. Electrons can often be stopped by a few inches of metal. This radiation occurs when a neutron decays into a proton in the nucleus, releasing a beta particle and an antineutrino.
Radiation plus beta (β +) is a positron emission. So, unlike β⁻, β + decay can not occur in isolation, because it requires energy, neutron mass is greater than the mass of a proton. β + decay can only occur in the nucleus when the value of the binding energy of the parent nucleus is smaller than the nucleus. The difference between this energy into the reaction conversion of a proton into a neutron, a positron and the antineutrino, and to the kinetic energy of the particles
Radiation gamma (γ)
Gamma radiation or gamma rays are an energetic form of electromagnetic radiation produced by radioactivity or nuclear or subatomic processes such as electron-positron annihilation. Gamma radiation consists of photons with frequencies greater than 1019 Hz. Gamma radiation of electrons or neutrons is not that it can not be stopped only with paper or air, more effective absorption of gamma rays in the material with atomic number and high density. When gamma rays moves through a material the absorption of gamma radiation proportionally to the thickness of the material surface.
Non-ionizing radiation.Non-ionizing radiation, in contrast, refers to the type of radiation that does not carry enough energy per photon to ionize atoms or molecules. It mainly refers to the form of lower energy of electromagnetic radiation (ie, radio waves, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared light and visible light). The impact of radiation on living tissue forms only recently been studied. Instead of forming ion energy when passing through matter, electromagnetic radiation has enough energy just to change the rotation, vibration or valence electronic configuration of molecules and atoms. However, different biological effects observed for the various types of non-ionizing radiation
Neutron radiation.Neutron radiation is a type of non-ionic radiation consists of free neutrons. Neutrons can be issued for either spontaneous or induced nuclear fission, nuclear fusion process, or of other nuclear reactions. He does not ionize atoms in the same way that the charged particles such as protons and electrons do not (attract electrons), because neutrons have no charge. However, neutrons easily react with atomic nuclei of various elements, making unstable isotopes and therefore encourages the radioactivity in the material that was previously non-radioactive. This process is known as neutron activation.
Electromagnetic radiationElectromagnetic radiation takes the form of waves that spread in thin air or in the material. EM radiation has electric and magnetic field components which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation of energy. Electromagnetic radiation is classified into types according to the frequency of the wave, this type include (in order of increasing frequency): radio waves, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. Of these, radio waves have the longest wavelengths and gamma rays have the shortest. A small window of frequencies, which is called the visible spectrum or light, as seen through the eyes of a variety of organisms, with variation limits of this narrow spectrum. EM radiation carries energy and momentum, which can be delivered when it interacts with matter.
Light.Light is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength that is visible to the human eye (about 400-700 nm), or up to 380-750 nm. More broadly, physicists considered light as electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths, visible or not.
Thermal radiation.Thermal radiation is a process in which the surface of objects emit thermal energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. infrared radiation from common household radiator or electric heater is an example of thermal radiation, such as heat and light are issued by an incandescent light bulb. Thermal radiation is generated when heat from the movement of charged particles in an atom is converted into electromagnetic radiation. Frequency waves emitted from thermal radiation is a probability distribution depends only on the temperature, and for a genuine black body given by Planck's radiation law. Wien law gives the most likely frequency of the emitted radiation, and the Stefan-Boltzmann law gives the heat intensity.
In medicine.Radiation and radioactive substances used for the diagnosis, treatment, and research. X-rays, for example, through the muscles and other soft tissues but is stopped by the solid material. This X-ray properties allow doctors to find broken bones and to find cancer that may grow in the body. Doctors also found a specific disease by injecting radioactive substances and radiation monitoring that is released as the substance moves through the body.
In CommunicationsAll modern communication systems use a form of electromagnetic radiation. Variations in the intensity of radiation in the form of changes in sound, image, or other information that is being sent. For example, the human voice can be transmitted as radio waves or microwaves to create waves of sound varies with variations.
In science and technology.The researchers use radioactive atoms to determine the age of materials that had been part of a living organism. The age of the material can be estimated by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon-containing in a process called radiocarbon dating. Scientists use radioactive atoms as tracer atoms to identify the path traversed by pollutants in the environment.
Radiation is used to determine the composition of the material in a process called neutron activation analysis. In this process, the scientists bombard the sample substance particles called neutrons. Some of the atoms in the sample absorbs neutrons and becomes radioactive. Scientists can identify the elements in the sample by studying radiation released.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. email@example.com
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: December 22, 2014 at 13:56