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Monday, 22 December 2014

You should know about natural gas.

distribution of natural gas through large pipes.
World natural gas production, brown is the largest production, followed by red
Natural gas is often also referred to as the Earth gas or marsh gas, is a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane CH4). He can be found in oil fields, gas fields of Earth and also coal mines. When the gas is rich in methane produced by anaerobic bacterial decomposition of organic materials other than fossil, then it is called biogas. Sources of biogas can be found in marshes, rubbish dumps, as well as human waste and animal shelters.

Chemical composition.

The main component in natural gas is methane (CH4), which is a chain hydrocarbon molecules shortest and lightest. Natural gas also contains molecules heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10), as well as gases containing sulfur (sulfur). Natural gas is also a major source of helium gas source.
Methane is a greenhouse gas that can create global warming when released into the atmosphere, and is generally regarded as a pollutant rather than a source of useful energy. Even so, the methane in the atmosphere reacts with ozone, producing carbon dioxide and water, so that the greenhouse effect of methane released into the air is relatively only lasted a moment. Sources of methane derived from living things mostly from termites, animal (mammal) and agriculture (estimated emission levels around 15, 75 and 100 million tons per year, respectively).
Methane (CH4) 80-95
Ethane (C2H6) 5-15
Propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) <5
Nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and water can also be contained in natural gas. Mercury can also be contained in a small amount. The composition of natural gas varies according to the source of the gas fields.
Organosulfur mixture and hydrogen sulfide are contaminants (impurities) from the gas main to be separated. Gas with a significant amount of sulfur impurities called sour gas and is often referred to as "acid gas (acid)". Natural gas that has been processed and will be sold are not tasteless and odorless. However, before the gas is distributed to end users, the gas is usually given odor by adding thiol, that can be detected in the event of a gas leak. Natural gas that has been processed in itself is not dangerous, but without the process of natural gas can cause respiratory strangled because it can reduce the oxygen content in the air at levels that may be harmful.
Natural gas can be dangerous because it is highly flammable and potentially explosive. Natural gas is lighter than air, so it tends to easily spread in the atmosphere. But if he is in a confined space, such as in the home, the gas concentration can reach the point of explosive mixture, which if ignited a fire, may cause an explosion that can destroy buildings. Dangerous methane content in the air is between 5% to 15%.
The explosion of compressed natural gas in vehicles, generally not worrying because it is lighter, and the concentration outside the range of 5-15% which can cause an explosion.
The energy content.
Combustion of one cubic meter of natural gas commercially produce 38 MJ (10.6 kWh).

The storage and transportation of natural gas.

Natural gas storage method is done with "Natural Gas Underground Storage", which is a huge room in the basement which is commonly known as the "salt dome" the domes in the case of underground reservoirs of natural gas resources that have been depleted. It is very appropriate for the country four seasons. In the summer when the use of gas for heating is much reduced (low demand), natural gas is injected through the gas compressors into the underground vaults. In the winter, where there is significant demand, natural gas stored in underground vaults issued for distribution to consumers in need. For companies (operators) provider of natural gas, this is very helpful to maintain the operational stability of the supply of natural gas through a natural gas pipeline.
Basically the natural gas transportation system include:

Transport via pipelines stripe.

Transportation in the form of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) with LNG tankers to transport over long distances.
Transportation in the form of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), both on the mainland by road tanker and the tanker CNG at sea, for near and intermediate distances (between islands).
In Indonesia, Oil and Gas Downstream Regulatory Body (BPH Natural Gas) has developed a Master Plan "Parent Network System Integrated National Gas Transmission". In a time not long natural gas pipeline system would stretch concatenated from Aceh and North Sumatra, Central Sumatra South Sumatra-Java, Sulawesi and Kalimantan. Currently gas pipelines in Indonesia are owned by Pertamina and PGN and still localized separately in certain areas, for example in North Sumatra, Central Sumatra, South Sumatra, West Java, East Java and East Kalimantan.
LNG carrier can be used to transport liquefied natural gas (liquefied natural gas, LNG) across the ocean, while the tanker can carry gasa liquefied or compressed natural gas (compressed natural gas, CNG) in close proximity. They can transporting natural gas directly to end-users or to a distribution point, such as a pipeline for further transport. It is still costly for additional facilities for gas liquefaction or compression at the point of production, and penggasan or decompression at the point of end-users or to the pipeline.

Natural Gas Utilization.

Broadly speaking, the utilization of natural gas is divided into 3 groups:
Natural gas as fuel, such as fuel Power Gas / Steam, industrial fuel light, medium and heavy, automotive fuel (CNG / NGV), as city gas for household needs of the hotel, restaurant and so on.
Natural gas as a raw material, among other raw materials fertilizer plants, petrochemicals, methanol, plastic raw materials (LDPE = low density polyethylene, LLDPE = linear low density polyethylene, HDPE = high-density polyethylen, PE = poly ethylene, PVC = poly vinyl chloride , C3 and C4 her for LPG, its CO2 for soft, dry ice food preservatives, artificial rain, industrial iron castings, welding and light a fire extinguishing agent.
Natural gas as an energy commodity for export, the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG.
Cutting-edge technology has also been able to utilize natural gas for air conditioner (AC = Air Conditioning), as used in the airport of Bangkok, Thailand and some college buildings in Australia.

Natural gas in Indonesia.

The utilization of natural gas in Indonesia began in the 1960s in which the production of natural gas from natural gas fields in the Hall of PT Stanvac Indonesia, South Sumatra sent through a gas pipeline to the fertilizer plant Pusri IA, PT Fertilizer Sriwidjaja in Palembang. The development of natural gas utilization in Indonesia increased considerably since 1974, where Pertamina began supplying natural gas through a gas pipeline from natural gas fields in Prabumulih, South Sumatra to the fertilizer plant Pusri II, III and Pusri Pusri IV in Palembang. Because it was too old and inefficient, in 1993 Pusri IA closed, and replaced by Pusri IB built by the sons of the Indonesian nation itself. At that time Pusri IB is the most modern fertilizer factory in Asia, because it uses high technology. In West Java, at the same time, in 1974, Pertamina also supplies natural gas through a gas pipeline from natural gas fields off the coast (off shore) and the Java sea Cirebon area for fertilizer plants and medium and heavy industries in the region of West Java and Banten Cilegon . Natural gas pipeline that runs from Cirebon area towards Cilegon, Banten supply of natural gas, among others, to cement plants, fertilizer plants, ceramic factories, steel mills and power plants and steam gas.
In addition to domestic demand, natural gas in Indonesia also exported in the form of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas)
One of the largest natural gas producing regions in Indonesia is Aceh. Natural gas resources of the region, the city of Lhokseumawe managed by PT Arun NGL Company. Natural gas has been produced since 1979 and exported to Japan and South Korea. Additionally in Krueng Geukuh, Nanggroe Aceh Baroh (of the district) also contained Iskandar Muda Fertilizer Plant urea fertilizer plant, the raw material of natural gas.

Gas reserves of the world.

Total reserves of the world (which has been confirmed) was 6.112 trillion square feet. List of top 20 countries with the largest gas reserves in units trillion square feet (trillion cu ft) is:
Russian = 1.680
Iran = 971
Qatar = 911
Saudi Arabia = 241
United Arab Emirates = 214
USA = 193
Nigeria = 185
Algeria ly = 161
Venezuela = 151
Iraq = 112
Indonesian = 98
Norwegian = 84
Malaysia = 75
Turkmenistan = 71
Uzbekistan = 66
Kazakhstan = 65
Dutch = 62
Egypt = 59
Canada = 57
Kuwait = 56
Total reserves of 20 countries above was 5.510 trillion square feet and total reserves of countries outside the top 20 in the above is 602 trillion square feet.
List of the largest gas fields in units (* 109 m³):
Asalouyeh, South Pars Gas Field (10000-15000)
Urengoy gas field (10000)
Shtokman field (3200)
Karachaganak field, Kazakhstan (1800)
Slochteren (1500)
Troll (1325)
Greater Gorgon (1100)
Shah Deniz gas field (800)
Tangguh gas field, Indonesia (500)
Sakhalin-I (485)
Ormen Lange (400)
Jonah Field (300)
Snøhvit (140)
Barnett Shale (60-900)
Maui gas field (?)

Do you know of radiation.

In physics, radiation describes any process in which energy moves through a medium or through space, and eventually absorbed by other objects. Lay people often connect said ionizing radiation (eg, as occurs in nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, and radioactive substances), but can also refer to electromagnetic radiation (ie, radio waves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, and X ray), acoustic radiation, or to other processes clearer. What makes the radiation is that the energy radiates (ie, moving outward in straight lines in all directions) from a source. This geometry naturally leads to a system of physical units of measurement and the same applies to all types of radiation. Some radiation can be harmful.

Ionizing radiation.

Some types of radiation has enough energy to ionize particles. In general, this involves an electron that is 'thrown' from atomic shell electrons, which would give a charge (positive). It is often interfere in biological systems, and can lead to mutations and cancer.
This type of radiation generally occur in the radioactive decay of radioactive waste and garbage.
Three main types of radiation discovered by Ernest Rutherford, alpha, beta, and gamma rays. The radiation was found through a simple experiment, Rutherford using radioactive sources and found that the rays produce hit three different areas. One of them being positive, one of them being neutral, and one of them negative. With this data, Rutherford concluded that radiation consists of three beams. He gave a name derived from the first three letters of the Greek alphabet, namely alpha, beta, and gamma.

Radiation alpha (α).

Alpha decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits alpha particles, and thus change (or 'decays') into the atomic mass number 4 less and atomic number 2 less.
However, due to the high particle mass so that it has less energy and lower distance, alpha particles can be stopped by a sheet of paper (or skin).

Radiation beta (β).

beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (electron or positron) is emitted.
Radiation beta-minus (β⁻) consists of an electron that is full of energy. This radiation is less ionized than alpha, but more than gamma rays. Electrons can often be stopped by a few inches of metal. This radiation occurs when a neutron decays into a proton in the nucleus, releasing a beta particle and an antineutrino.

Radiation plus beta (β +) is a positron emission. So, unlike β⁻, β + decay can not occur in isolation, because it requires energy, neutron mass is greater than the mass of a proton. β + decay can only occur in the nucleus when the value of the binding energy of the parent nucleus is smaller than the nucleus. The difference between this energy into the reaction conversion of a proton into a neutron, a positron and the antineutrino, and to the kinetic energy of the particles
Radiation gamma (γ)

Gamma radiation or gamma rays are an energetic form of electromagnetic radiation produced by radioactivity or nuclear or subatomic processes such as electron-positron annihilation. Gamma radiation consists of photons with frequencies greater than 1019 Hz. Gamma radiation of electrons or neutrons is not that it can not be stopped only with paper or air, more effective absorption of gamma rays in the material with atomic number and high density. When gamma rays moves through a material the absorption of gamma radiation proportionally to the thickness of the material surface.

Non-ionizing radiation.

Non-ionizing radiation, in contrast, refers to the type of radiation that does not carry enough energy per photon to ionize atoms or molecules. It mainly refers to the form of lower energy of electromagnetic radiation (ie, radio waves, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared light and visible light). The impact of radiation on living tissue forms only recently been studied. Instead of forming ion energy when passing through matter, electromagnetic radiation has enough energy just to change the rotation, vibration or valence electronic configuration of molecules and atoms. However, different biological effects observed for the various types of non-ionizing radiation

Neutron radiation.

Neutron radiation is a type of non-ionic radiation consists of free neutrons. Neutrons can be issued for either spontaneous or induced nuclear fission, nuclear fusion process, or of other nuclear reactions. He does not ionize atoms in the same way that the charged particles such as protons and electrons do not (attract electrons), because neutrons have no charge. However, neutrons easily react with atomic nuclei of various elements, making unstable isotopes and therefore encourages the radioactivity in the material that was previously non-radioactive. This process is known as neutron activation.

Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation takes the form of waves that spread in thin air or in the material. EM radiation has electric and magnetic field components which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation of energy. Electromagnetic radiation is classified into types according to the frequency of the wave, this type include (in order of increasing frequency): radio waves, microwaves, terahertz radiation, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. Of these, radio waves have the longest wavelengths and gamma rays have the shortest. A small window of frequencies, which is called the visible spectrum or light, as seen through the eyes of a variety of organisms, with variation limits of this narrow spectrum. EM radiation carries energy and momentum, which can be delivered when it interacts with matter.


Light is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength that is visible to the human eye (about 400-700 nm), or up to 380-750 nm. More broadly, physicists considered light as electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths, visible or not.

Thermal radiation.

Thermal radiation is a process in which the surface of objects emit thermal energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. infrared radiation from common household radiator or electric heater is an example of thermal radiation, such as heat and light are issued by an incandescent light bulb. Thermal radiation is generated when heat from the movement of charged particles in an atom is converted into electromagnetic radiation. Frequency waves emitted from thermal radiation is a probability distribution depends only on the temperature, and for a genuine black body given by Planck's radiation law. Wien law gives the most likely frequency of the emitted radiation, and the Stefan-Boltzmann law gives the heat intensity.


In medicine.

Radiation and radioactive substances used for the diagnosis, treatment, and research. X-rays, for example, through the muscles and other soft tissues but is stopped by the solid material. This X-ray properties allow doctors to find broken bones and to find cancer that may grow in the body. Doctors also found a specific disease by injecting radioactive substances and radiation monitoring that is released as the substance moves through the body.

In Communications

All modern communication systems use a form of electromagnetic radiation. Variations in the intensity of radiation in the form of changes in sound, image, or other information that is being sent. For example, the human voice can be transmitted as radio waves or microwaves to create waves of sound varies with variations.

In science and technology.

The researchers use radioactive atoms to determine the age of materials that had been part of a living organism. The age of the material can be estimated by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon-containing in a process called radiocarbon dating. Scientists use radioactive atoms as tracer atoms to identify the path traversed by pollutants in the environment.
Radiation is used to determine the composition of the material in a process called neutron activation analysis. In this process, the scientists bombard the sample substance particles called neutrons. Some of the atoms in the sample absorbs neutrons and becomes radioactive. Scientists can identify the elements in the sample by studying radiation released.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: December 22, 2014 at 13:56
tags: You should know about natural gas.
Code: 42S4EUXRR3UM

Great Facts About the Kaaba The Try Hidden World.

Turns Not GMT Not In Greenwich, But In the Kaaba (Scientific Facts)

Kaaba, the house of God a million Muslim Ummah miss a visit and be a guest - a creator God. Qibla (direction) Muslim Ummah in praying, from any country all ritual prayers facing the Qibla this.

The term of the Kaaba is the language of the Qur'an from the word "ka'bu" which means "ankle" or a spin move to step foot. 5/6 verses in the Qur'an define the term "Ka'bain" which means 'two ankles' and paragraph 5 / 95-96 containing the term 'Kaaba' which means a real "eye of the earth" or "axis of the earth" or the north pole of the earth round.

Neil Armstrong has proved that the city of Mecca is the center of the planet Earth. This fact has been in the study through a scientific study.

When Neil Armstrong for the first time to travel into space and take a picture of planet Earth, he said, "Planet Earth turns hanging in a very dark area, who hung it?."

The astronauts have discovered that the planet was issued some sort of radiation, they officially announce it on the Internet, but unfortunately it 21 days later the website disappeared that there seems to be a hidden reason behind the abolition of the website.

After doing more research, it turns out that radiation centered in the city of Mecca, precisely derived from the Kaaba. What is surprising is that radiation is infinite (not lead), it is proven when they take photos of Mars, the radiation is still continued.

Muslim researchers believe that this radiation has a characteristic and connect between the Kaaba on the planet with the Kaaba in the hereafter.

Makkah Center of the Earth

Prof. Hussain Kamel discovered a surprising fact that Makkah is the center of the earth. At first he was researching a way to determine the direction of Qibla in major cities in the world.

For this purpose, it draws lines on the map, and after that he is closely watching all seven continents to Makkah position and distance respectively. He begin to draw parallel lines only to facilitate the projection of longitude and latitude.

After two years of hard work and heavy it was, he was helped by computer programs to determine the correct distances and different variations, as well as many other things. He was amazed with what was found, that Mecca is the center of the earth.

He was aware of the possibility of drawing a circle with Mecca as its center point, and the outline of the circle is a continent-continent. And at the same time, he moves in conjunction with the outer circumference of the continents. (Al-Arabiyyah magazine, issue 237, August 1978).

Satellite pictures, which appear later in the 90s, emphasizing the same results when further studies leading to the layers of the earth's topography and geography of the land when it was created.

Has become a well-established scientific theory that the earth's plates are formed during a long geological ages, moving regularly around the Arabian plate. These plates continuously converge towards it as if pointing to Mecca.

The scientific studies carried out for different purposes and not intended to prove that Mecca is the center of the earth. However, these studies were published in many magazines in Western science.
Allah says in the Qur'an al-Karim as follows:

'Thus have We revealed to you the Quran in Arabic that you may warn the Umm Al-Qura (Makkah residents) and population (countries) around ..' (ash-Shura: 7)

The word 'Umm Al-Qura' means a parent for other cities and towns around it shows Makkah is the center for other cities, and the others are just being around him. Moreover, the word ummu (mother) are very important in Islamic culture.

As a mother is the source of descent, the Mecca is also the source of all other countries, as described at the beginning of this study. In addition, the word 'mother' gave Makkah superiority over all other cities.

Makkah or Greenwich

Based on careful consideration that Makkah is the middle of the earth as corroborated by studies and drawings produced geological satellite, then it really is believed that the Holy City of Mecca, not Greenwich, which is supposed to be used as a reference time world. This will end the long controversy that began four decades ago.

There are many scientific arguments to prove that Mecca is a region of zero square through the holy city, and he did not pass through Greenwich, England. GMT imposed on the world when the majority of countries in the world are under British rule. If time Makkah is applied, it is easy for everyone to know the time of prayer.

Makkah is the center of the heavens

There are several verses and Prophetic hadith that implies this fact. Allah says, 'O group jinn and mankind, if you are able to penetrate (crossing) regions of the heavens and the earth, then pass, you can not pass through but with strength. "(Ar-Rahman: 33)

Aqthar word is the plural form of the word 'qutr' which mean diameter, and he refers to the heavens and the earth which have many diameter.

From this and from some traditions can be understood that the diameter of the heavens above the earth diameter (seven plates of the earth). If Mecca is in the midst of the earth, then it means that Mecca is also in the midst of the heavens.

In addition there is a hadith that says that the Grand Mosque in Mecca, where the Kaaba is there in the midst of the seven heavens and seven earths layers (ie seven layers forming the earth). Thank you for reading this article.
Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: December 22, 2014 at 12:46
Tag : Great Facts About the Kaaba The Try Hidden World.
Code : 42S4EUXRR3UM

Thursday, 11 December 2014

You want to know about the Mafia.

The Mafia.
Mafia, also referred to as La Cosa Nostra (Italian: Things We), is a collective call to some secret organization in Sicily and the United States. Mafia was originally the name of a confederation that people in Sicily entered in the Middle Ages for the purpose of protection and enforcement alone (vigilante). The Confederation then started to organized crime.
Mafia members called "mafioso", which means "honorable man".
Mafia expanding into the United States through immigration in the 20th century.
Mafia strength peaked in the US in the mid-20th century, up to a barrage of FBI investigations in the 1970s and 1980s rather reduce their influence. Despite the fall, the Mafia and its reputation has been embedded in American popular culture, filmed on television and even advertisements.
The term "mafia" has now widened to be able to refer to any large group who organized crime (compare with the Russian Mafia, the Yakuza in Japan), and the Triads in China.

Mafia, Most Famous Crime Organization Worldwide.

Perhaps this is the most famous criminal organization in the world and have been frequently raised in the story of the novel, movie, or other stories in various forms. Mafia is a term used to describe a type of organized crime syndicates are primarily committed a crime of extortion, the use of violent intimidation to manipulate local economic activity, especially illicit trade. Other activities are practiced such as drug trafficking, loan-sharking and fraud. They are bound together in the form of rules of conduct code of honor Mafia (Omerta) in southern Italy, and its members unite to protect the Mafia from outside interference and law enforcement.

Mafia term originally given to the Sicilian Mafia in Italy, but later expanded to include other organizations whose methods are similar and the same purpose, for example, "Russian Mafia", "Japanese Mafia" or commonly called the Yakuza, or "Albanian Mafia", and others . The term is applied informally by the press and the public; criminal organization itself has a mention of the term in themselves (eg Sicilian and American Mafia were founded by immigrants of Italian descent) calls himself "Cosa Nostra", the Mexican Mafia calls itself "La Eme" and "Japanese Mafia" calls himself "Yakuza". When the Mafia used its own vocabulary, the word "Mafia" usually refers to the Sicilian Mafia or the American Mafia.

The four most known Mafia organizations worldwide are:

Mafia Sicily (Italy),

Also known as Cosa Nostra (in English "Our Thing"), is a criminal syndicate in Islands of Sicily, Italy. This organization is an association of criminal groups that have a common organizational structure and code of ethics, and are primarily engaged in the services of security protection and extortion. Each group, which is known as "family", "clan", or "cosca", claims sovereignty over a territory, usually a town or village or neighborhood (Borgata) from the larger cities, especially where they operate. Its members called themselves "honorable men", although people often refer to them as "mafiosi / mafioso". According to the classical definition, the Mafia is a criminal organization that originated from Sicily. However, the term "mafia" and widespread become a generic term to refer to any organized criminal networks with similar structures, methods, and the same interests.

The Mafia often cooperate in parallel, but not rare clash with fellow Mafia in the same region. Mafia tissue from other parts of southern Italy, such as the Camorra (from Campania), 'Ndrangheta (from Calabria), Stidda (south of Sicily) and the Sacra Corona Unita (from Apulia). Giovanni Falcone, an anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Mafia in 1992, raised objections to the incorporation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general:
The American Mafia emerged as an offshoot of the Italian Mafia began to appear in the United States in the late nineteenth century, after a wave of emigration from Italy arrived in the United States. There are branches of the same in Canada, founded by the Italians in Canada. The same thing has been claimed that the formation of networks of organized crime by the Italians in Australia.

Russian Mafiya (Russia)

In the Russian alphabet: "мафия русская" or read Russkaya Mafiya or bratva, is a term used to refer to the various elements of organized crime originating from countries of the former Soviet Union. Although not a single criminal organization, the majority of groups of individuals sharing the same purpose in the organization structure, define them as part of the overall association. Organized crime in Russia began during the Tsarist empire, but it was not until the Soviet era where Vory v zakone ("thief-in-law") emerged as the leader of the prison in the Gulag (forced labor camps in the Soviet prison), and since they are the emergence of a code of honor in the group Russian Mafia defined more clearly. After World War II, the death of Joseph Stalin, and the fall of the Soviet Union, many gangs have emerged and evolved in the black market, take advantage of unstable governments of the countries of the former Soviet Union, and at the highest point of control even as much as two-thirds of the Russian economy.

Louis Freeh, the former FBI director, has said the Russian mafia poses the greatest threat to US national security in the mid-1990s. In this modern era, there are as many as 6,000 different groups, with more than 200 of them have a range of global-scale operations. Criminals of various groups both former gang members in prison, corrupt Communist officials, and business leaders, people with ethnic ties, or people from the same region to share their experiences of crime and have a leader. In December 2009, the East Lakhonin, head of the National Central Bureau of Interpol Russia, stated, "Of course, there are crimes involving our former colleagues abroad, but there are no data to suggest that the structure of organized criminal groups consisting of former Russians residing abroad ", while in August 2010, Alain Bauer, a French criminologist, said that the" Russian Mafia is one of the best and most structured criminal organizations in Europe, the military equivalent operation. "

American Mafia (United States).

The American Mafia, commonly known as the Mafia or Mafia Mob Italian or Italian, or the Mob in the United States, is a criminal society Italian-American descent. Similar to the Sicilian Mafia, Italian-American Mafia is a secret criminal society without a formal name. Members usually refer to it as the Cosa Nostra (Italian pronunciation: ( kɔza nɔstra ), Italian for "our affairs"). The press has also created the name "National Crime Syndicate" to refer to the whole of organized crime in the United States, including the Mafia. The Mafia emerged in New York's Lower East Side, the other areas on the East Coast United States, and several other major metropolitan areas (like New Orleans for example) in the late 19th and early 20th century following waves of immigration from Italy, mainly from the islands of Sicily .
This organization is rooted in the Sicilian Mafia, but an organization that is completely separate in the United States. Neapolitan, Calabria, Italy and other criminal groups, as well as Italian-American criminal who stands alone, eventually joining the Sicilian Mafia to create frontman Mafia family One of America's most widely known is Al Capone, where the figure raised in various Hollywood movie themed Mafia . Mafia-modern Italian descent in North America. Currently, the American Mafia cooperate in various criminal activities with the Sicilian Mafia and organized crime groups Italy, such as the Camorra, 'Ndrangheta, the Sacra Corona Unita and. The most important unit of the American Mafia is that merkea is part of the "family" is derived from criminal organizations that make the Mafia known to be very broad and has a strong network. Although the name of "family" to describe the various units, a succession of American Mafia leader is not always hereditary, although it is possible.

The Mafia is currently most active in New York City, New Jersey, Philadelphia, New England, Detroit, and Chicago, with smaller families, associations, and the crew in places like Florida, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, and Texas. There are at least 26 cities across the United States with the Cosa Nostra families, with many branches, and a splinter group of colleagues in other cities. There are five families of New York City major Mafia, known as the Five Families: The Gambino, Lucchese, Genovese, Bonanno and Colombo families.

Ranks arrangement in a Mafia Family Organization.

At its peak, the Mafia dominated organized crime in the US Although every family who launched a crime to operate independently, national coordination is provided by a Committee, consisting of the bosses of each family strongest. Law enforcement still considers Mafia largest organized crime group in the United States. It then maintains control over the many activities of organized crime in the United States and certain parts of Canada (Look Rizzuto crime family). Currently most of the mafia activities contained to the Northeastern United States and Chicago where they continued to dominate organized crime despite the increasing number of street gangs and other organizations that do not come from Italy.

Black Mafia Family (United States).

BMF is a drug trafficking organization which was originally based in Detroit, Michigan, which was founded in the late 1980s by two brothers Demetrius and Terry Flenory. In 2000, they have built a cocaine distribution cells in cities across the United States. Through drug source supplier based in Los Angeles, they establish a direct relationship with the Mexican drug cartels. They form the two main hub for their drug trafficking operations, namely: "Atlanta, Georgia hub", specifically for the distribution of narcotics, operated by brother Demetrius, while "Los Angeles, California hub" operated by Terry to handle incoming shipments from Mexico.

Around 2000, the organization tries to legitimize itself by entering the music business of hip-hop, started a company called BMF Entertainment. Through BMF Entertainment, they help promote a number of artists, including Young Jeezy, and Bleu DaVinci. Before they get into the music business, Flenory Brothers known to be close to a number of well-known hip-hop artists, including Jay-Z and Fabolous.
In 2005, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to indict members of the Black Mafia Family. Both brothers were sentenced to 30 years to life. Subsequent indictment eventually charged to more than 150 members of the organization. Attorney guide mentions the organization make more than $ 270 million (approximately Rp 3,181,950,000,000, - or more than three trillion dollars) for their organization running.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: December 11, 2014 at 12:49
Tag : You want to know about the Mafia.
Code : 42S4EUXRR3UM

Did you know Charles Darwin.

Darwin, aged 45 in 1854, then worked for the publication of Origin of Species.
Born Charles Robert Darwin
February 12, 1809
The Mount, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, United Kingdom
Died 19 April 1882 (age 73)
Houses Down, Downe, Kent, United Kingdom
Places to stay British
British citizenship
Nationality United Kingdom
Royal Medal Award (1853)
Wollaston Medal (1859)
Copley Medal (1864)
Couple Emma Darwin (1839 - 1882)

Charles Robert Darwin (born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, December 12, 1809 - died in Downe, Kent, England, 19 April 1882 at the age of 72 years) was an English naturalist who laid the foundation for his revolutionary theory of modern evolutionary theory and principles lineage same (common descent) by proposing natural selection as a mechanism. This theory is now considered an integral component of biology (life sciences).
He developed his interest in natural history when he initially studied medicine, and then theology, at university. Sea journey across the world for five years aboard the HMS Beagle subsequent writings made him a leading geologist and writer famous. Biological observations led him to study about the transmutation of species and he developed his theory of natural selection in 1838. Due fully aware that other people who put forward ideas heretical as it suffered severe punishment, he simply convey this research to friends closest. However, he continued his research by recognizing the emergence of various objections to the results. However, in 1858 the information that Alfred Russel Wallace also find a similar theory prompted him to issue joint of Darwin's theory.
His book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (usually abbreviated to The Origin of Species) (1859) is his most famous until now. This book describes the evolution through the same lineage as the dominant scientific explanation of the diversity in nature. Darwin was named a Fellow of the Royal Society, continued his research, and wrote a series of books about plants and animals, including humans, and that stands out is The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Last book is about earthworms.
As a sign of recognition of the greatness of Darwin, he was buried in Westminster Abbey, along with William Herschel and Isaac Newton.



Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, at the family home, the Mount House. He was the fifth of six children of a wealthy doctor, Robert Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood. His grandfather, Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood father's side of the mother. Both come from prominent English family, family Darwin - Wedgwood supporting the Unitarian church. His mother died when Charles was eight years old. When the following year he attended Shrewsbury School which is not so far away, he lived in boarding school.
Thanks to the wealth of their parents, Darwin enjoyed the comfort and have access facilities to acquire a good education. However, his father worried about the future of Darwin, because he was just having fun with hunting, playing with the dog and catch mice. His father worried that Darwin would bring shame to the family. Although Darwin had from early interested in biology, to please his father, he took up the study of medicine.
In 1825, after a summer as an apprentice doctor, helping his father take care of the poor people in Shropshire, Darwin went to Edinburgh University to study medicine. But he hated the brutality of surgery so that he left his studies. He learned how to preserve the animals from John Edmonstone, a black slave who had been freed, who told him interesting stories about tropical forests in South America. In the second year, Darwin became active in the fraternity for the naturalist. He became a keen student of Robert Edmund Grant. Grant is the man who pioneered the development of theories of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and Charles theory grandfather, Erasmus, evolution by examining characteristics. Darwin took part in Grant research on the life cycle of marine animals on the shore of the Firth of Forth which found evidence for homology, the radical theory that all animals have similar organs and only vary in complexity. In March 1827, Darwin gave a presentation to the Association of Plinian on his own discovery that black spores often found in oyster shells are similar leech eggs (skate leech). He also attended classes Robert Jameson on natural history, and learn about the geological stratigraphy and how to classify plants while watching for the work to develop a comprehensive collection of the Museum of the University of Edinburgh.

In 1827, his father was not happy because the child does not wish to become a doctor, secretly enrolled in a Bachelor of Arts program at Christ's College, University of Cambridge, to prepare a pastor. This is a reasonable choice at a time when the Anglican earn a decent income, and most of the naturalists in England when it was a pastor who considers part of their job is to "explore the wonders of God's creation". At Cambridge, Darwin preferred to ride a horse and shoot rather than learning. Together cousin, William Darwin Fox, he drowned in the current craze for collecting beetles race. Fox also introduced him to the Reverend John Stevens Henslow, professor of botany, to get expert advice on beetles. Darwin then go to class natural history Henslow, became his favorite disciple, and came to be known as "the man who walked with Henslow". When the test came, Darwin focused more on his studies and get a special additional class of Henslow in mathematics and theology. Darwin were particularly interested in the writings of William Paley, including the argument of divine design in nature. In the tests finally in January 1831, he succeeded well in theology and because he studied hard in classical studies, mathematics and physics, he appeared in the top 10 of the 178 students who graduated.
Residency demands require Darwin lived in Cambridge until June. Following Henslow's example and advice, he was in no hurry to become a pastor. He was inspired by the writings of Alexander von Humboldt, Personal Narrative, and therefore he planned to visit the Madeira Islands to study natural history in the tropics with some classmates after graduation. To prepare himself, Darwin took a geology class of the Reverend Adam Sedgwick, a strong proponent of divine design, and in the summer to go with him to assist in mapping layers (strata) in Wales. Darwin was doing research strata own when his plans to go to Madeira canceled by the message that will go with her colleagues who have passed away, but when he returned home he received another letter. Henslow has recommended to Darwin for a position that is not paid to be a companion to Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle, in a two-year expedition to explore the coastline of South America. This will provide a valuable opportunity Darwin to develop his career as a naturalist. His father opposed the trip, think of it as a waste of time, but he was persuaded by Josiah Wedgwood II to approve their participation. This trip into a five-year expedition that led to dramatic changes in many fields of science.

Travel by Beagle.

Darwin had decided that it was a way of life to become a pastor and a quiet life when he received a very tempting offer. Darwin was invited to accompany Captain Robert FitzRoy on the HMS Beagle. At that time, has become a habit that the captain of the ship has a companion during the expedition ship which usually lasts for years. Because the position of Captain FitzRoy high enough, only a 'gentleman' who can be his best man. Nigrat line Darwin proved useful. Although the expedition aims to create a marine map, FitzRoy secretly has plans to look for evidence of creation as written in the Bible. Ironically, Darwin was selected by FitzRoy because Darwin is a prospective pastor, as well as thanks to his noble blood.
Beagle survey lasted five years. Darwin spent two-thirds of this time to explore the mainland. He investigated a wide range of geological appearance, fossil and living organisms, and meet a wide range of people, both indigenous and colonial society. Methodically he gathered a large number of specimens, many of them new to science. This confirmed his reputation as a naturalist and makes it one of the pioneers in the field of ecology, particularly the understanding of biokoenosis. The records detailed that the length showed his gift to build the theory and form the basis for future work, as well as provide insight into the social anthropological, political depth areas visited.
The voyage, Darwin read Charles Lyell, Principles of Geology (Principles of Geology), which explains the geological appearance as a result of a gradual process during various periods long, and wrote a letter to his family that he witnessed other forms of land "is as if he had the eyes of Lyell ": he saw the plains of the thin layer (shingle) are steep and shells in Patagonia as ascending beaches. In Chile he experienced an earthquake and noted the basics ocean with shells stranded above high tide showing that the land had increased; and even in places high in the Andes, he can collect sea shells. He theorized that coral atolls form on the volcanic mountains of the sinking, an idea that he saw confirmed when the Beagle investigate Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
In South America he discovered fossils of extinct giant mammals, including megatheria and gliptodon in layers that do not show signs or catastrophic climate change. Occasionally he sees his they are similar to species in Africa, but after shipping Richard Owen showed that the remains were derived from animals related to living creatures in the same place. In Argentina two species of rhea had separate areas but overlap. In the Galápagos Islands Darwin found that mockingbirds differ from one island to another, and when he returned to Britain kepadnya shown that turtles Galápagos tortoises and finches also vary depending on the species of each island they inhabit. Australian marsupial animals kangaroo rats and animals platypus is very strange that he thinks "People who do not believe ... maybe say 'Surely two distinct Creator has worked'. "He was confused by what he saw, and while in the first edition of The Voyage of the Beagle (Sailing in the Beagle) he describes the distribution of species by Charles Lyell's ideas of "centers of creation", in recent editions of this Journal, he begin to imagine the use of Galápagos Islands fauna as evidence for evolution: "people may actually suspect that a small number of native birds in this archipelago, one species had been taken and modified for different purposes."
Three native missionaries returned by Beagle to Tierra del Fuego. They have been in civilized-right in the UK for two years, but their relatives in Darwin's eyes looked "wild", slightly above the animal. Within a year, the missionaries had returned to their lives were hard and primitive, but they are more like it and do not want to go back to the civilized world. This experience and the rejection of Darwin against slavery and various other inhumane treatment were seen in other places, such as ill-treatment of the natives by British colonists in Tasmania convinced him that there is no moral justification whatsoever for treating others badly based on the concept race. Now he argues that human beings are not too far away from the animal, in contrast to what is believed by his friends clergy.
While on the ship, Darwin suffered seasickness. In October 1833 he got a fever in Argentina, and in July 1834, while returning from the Andes to Valparaíso, he fell ill and was forced to stay in bed for a month. Since 1837 Darwin suffered repeated abdominal pain, vomiting, severe boils, palpitations, trembling and a variety of other symptoms. All of these symptoms particularly affected him at times when he was depressed, such as when attending meetings or dealing with disputes about the theory. The cause of the disease is unknown Darwin in his lifetime, and various efforts to take care not had much success. Speculation has recently stated that in South America he Chagas disease due to insect bites, which causes a variety of problems later. Other causes that may include the problems of psycho-biological and Ménière's disease.

Careers in science, theory formation.

While still in the voyage, Henslow carefully strengthen former pupil's reputation by giving a naturalist's selected examples of access to fossil and printed copies of Darwin's geological writings. When the Beagle returned on 2 October 1836, Darwin has become well known in scientific circles. He visited his family in Shrewsbury and his father developed the savings that Darwin could become a scientist who is supported by its own funds. Darwin then went to Cambridge and persuaded Henslow so doing botanical descriptions of modern plants he had collected. After that Darwin traveled to institutions in London to find the best naturalists available to describe other collections for publication in a timely manner. Charles Lyell was very excited to see Darwin on 29 October and introduced him to an anatomist Richard Owen who is on the rise. After working on a collection of fossil bones of the Association of Surgeons of Darwin in his kingdom, Owen caused a big surprise by revealing that some of it comes from the rats and similar animals that have been extinct giant creep. It enhances the reputation of Darwin. With the enthusiastic support of Lyell, Darwin first presented a paper to the Geological Society of London on January 4, 1837, and said that the South American land are rising slowly. On the same day Darwin presented examples of mammals and birds to the Association of zoological London. The animals mammals were taken by George R. Waterhouse. Although the birds seem like a new idea came later, John Gould, a bird expert revealed that what was presumed to Darwin as "wren", black birds, and somewhat different from the Galápagos finches are all finches, but each respective different species. The others in the Beagle, including FitzRoy also telha collect these birds and more careful with their records, to allow Darwin found on the island where each species was derived.
In London Charles lived with his brother, Erasmus, a free thinker. At a dinner parties he met with a number of scholars who argue that God has set his previous life with the laws of nature, rather than the magical creations for a while. His best friend, Ms. Harriet Martineau was a writer whose stories promoting reforms Whig Malthusian law of poor people. Scientific circles excited by the ideas of transmutation of species controversially associated with Radical excitement. Darwin would rather Dear friends, the Cambridge professor, despite his ideas beyond their belief that natural history must justify religion and social order.
On February 17, 1837, Lyell used his presidential address at the Geographical Society to present Owen's findings to determine the date of Darwin's fossils, and shows the inference that the species of animals that have been pu well was associated with species of the existing now in the same place. At the same meeting Darwin was elected to the Board of the Association. He has been invited by FitzRoy to contribute articles in the Journal based on his field notes as part of the natural history of the captain of the Beagle voyage report. Now he is immersed in the writing of a book on the geology of South America. At the same time he speculated on transmutation in his Red Book notes that have been completed at the start of the Beagle. Another project commencement getting reports of experts on the collection published as a series of publications of Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle (Zoology of the Voyage of HMS Beagle), and Henslow used his contacts to arrange the provision of £ 1,000 from the Treasury for sponsoring it. Darwin finished writing his Journal about 20 June when King William IV died and the Victorian era began. In mid-July he started a notebook "B" of the secret of transmutation, and developed the hypothesis that where every island of the Galápagos Islands have their own kind of tortoise, all of it comes from a species of turtle and had to adjust to island -miami different in different ways.
Under pressure to organize Zoology and correcting manuscripts to his Journal, Darwin's health deteriorated. On 20 September 1837 he suffered a "heart pounding" and go to the countryside to recuperate. He visited Maer Hall where invalid aunt who was raised by her daughter who remained single, Emma Wedgwood, and entertaining relatives with stories about his travels. His uncle, Jos showed a spot on the ground where cinders disappeared under loam and say that it all is the work of earthworms. Darwin got the idea for a conversation that is conveyed to the Geological Society on 1 November, about a topic that is very unusual about earthworms. He has avoided official positions that may seize the precious time, but in March it, Whewell had recruited him as Secretary of the Geological Society. The pain makes Darwin rest from the pressures of work, and he went conduct geological research in Scotland. In clear air he visited Glen Roy to see the phenomenon known as "roads" that - wrongly - described as ascending beaches.

Once fully recovered, he returned to his home in Shrewsbury. He thought about a career and scientific prospects, and therefore he compiled a list with two columns titled "Married" and "Not Marry". List included under the pro-marriage column included "constant companion and friend in old age ... however better than a dog," while a list of the counter is "less money for books" and "the loss of a very sad time . "Consideration pro eventually win. He discussed this with his father then went to visit his cousin Emma on 29 July 1838. He did not directly apply, but in contrast to his father's advice, he told Emma ideas on transmutation.
While the thought and work continued in London in the autumn, he repeatedly fell ill.On 11 November he returned and proposed to Emma, and once again told him his ideas. He accepted it, but later wrote and begged him to read from the Gospel of John part about love and follow the road which also states that "If anyone does not remain in me, he ... thrown into the fire and burned". Charles sent a warm response that eliminates concern, but Emma still worry that the decline of faith Charles would jeopardize his hope that they would meet again in the afterlife.

Marriage and children.

On January 29, 1839, Darwin married his cousin Emma Wedgwood at Maer in an Anglican ceremony arranged to suit the Unitarians.
After the first stay in Gower Street, London, the couple moved on 17 September 1842 to Down House, Downe (which is now open for public visits, south of Orpington). Darwin family had ten children, three of whom died in early childhood. Many of them and their grandchildren would become famous (see the family Darwin - Wedgwood)
William Erasmus Darwin (December 27 1839-1914)
Anne Elizabeth Darwin (March 2 1841-22 April 1851)
Mary Eleanor Darwin (September 23 1842-16 October 1842)
Emma Henrietta "Etty" Darwin (September 25 1843-1929)
George Howard Darwin (July 9 1845-7 December 1912)
Elizabeth "Bessy" Darwin (July 8 1847 to 1926)
Francis Darwin (August 16, 1848-19 September 1925)
Leonard Darwin (January 15th, 1850-26 March 1943)
Horace Darwin (May 13 1851-29 September 1928)
Charles Waring Darwin (December 6 1856-28 June 1858)
Some of their children suffering from illness or weak body. Charles Darwin worried that this might be due to his lineage with Emma pretty close. This is expressed in his writings about the harmful consequences arising from the marriage between close relatives and benefit from cross-breeding.

Development theory.

Darwin had long thought about the evolution of the idea; that all species are related to each other and have a "common ancestor" (derived from a single lineage) and new species arise through mutations. But he was still curious about the mechanics of how the process occurs. By chance, he read the writings of Thomas Malthus. Malthus argued that human population grew faster than food production, causing humans compete with each other to compete for food and make charitable deeds vain. Darwin happily use this mechanism to explain his theory. He writes: "Human beings tend to increase in the level of greater than how to survive. As a result, he occasionally had to fight hard to survive, and natural selection will affect what lies within this range." (Descent of Man, Ps.21) He attributed this to the findings of the species associated with places, research on the breeding of animals, and the idea of "the law of natural selection" (Natural Selection). Towards the end of 1838 he compared the characteristics of the selection of farmers with natural selection according to the Malthusian theory of variants that occur "by chance" so that "every part of newly acquired structure is fully practiced and perfected", and considers that it is "part of the the most beautiful of my theory "of how species originated.
Darwin now is a leading geologist among the scientific elite among the clergy who also is a naturalist. In finance it pretty well established with personal income. He has a lot of work to do, write down the findings and theories, and oversee the preparation of writing a series of books that describe Zoology collections. He was convinced of the truth of evolution, but for a longer period of time he realized that the transmutation of species associated with the denial of God and the democratic agitators in Britain are trying to overthrow society. Thus, publishing his theory could threaten his reputation. Darwin did a lot of experiments with plants and engaged in consultations with the breeders of animals, including pigeons and pig breeders, trying to find the answers that are strong against all arguments are anticipated when he presented his theory in public.
When the report was published in May 1839 FitzRoy, Journals and Notes Darwin's getting rave reviews. Later in the same year, it was the publication of his own writings, sells and is now known as The Voyage of the Beagle (Beagle voyage). In December 1839, when Emma was pregnant for the first time, Darwin returned sick.

The publication of The Origin of Species and controversy.

Darwin wrote about the evolution of ideas in the book Origin of Species (The Origin of Species) which explains the theory of evolution. At first, Darwin hesitate to publish the ideas and observations are very radical, especially at that time, England in Victorian times. Over the years, it stores this idea and just talk with co-workers to believe. One motivation Darwin to finally publish this book is the encouragement of Alfred Russel Wallace. Wallace also wrote about a similar idea and send it to Darwin. Darwin advised to expeditiously complete the writing. In 1859, his book The Origin of Species was published and, unexpectedly, become hard and controversial behavior.
Although Darwin did not discuss human evolution openly, the book gets tough challenge, both from the scientific, and the community, especially the church. In this difficult period, Darwin was accompanied by one of his loyal friend, Thomas Huxley, who was nicknamed "Darwin's Bulldog". By telling and sharp, Huxley defended Darwin's theory of attacks. One famous episode is the debate between Bishop Samuel Wilberforce Huxley with.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: December 11, 2014 at 09:13
Tag : Did you know Charles Darwin.
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Wednesday, 10 December 2014

Do you know the history of the archipelago.

History of the archipelago are events and kingdoms that stand in the World Malay Archipelago or before the embodiment of Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines, and the Republic of Indonesia. Generally, the history of the shoreline is divided to the ancient or prehistoric, Buddhist Hindu kingdom era, the days of the Islamic empire and the end of the colonial era. After the colonial period, the archipelago broken to the several countries namely Brunei, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and East Timor.

Prehistoric times.

Early humans migrated into the archipelago occurred between 100000-160000 years ago as a partial move "out of Africa". In addition, roughly the 20th century BC, 2000 BC, moved massive entrance to the islands conducted by Austronesian race of Yunnan and they became the ancestors of the tribes in the western islands. They come in two waves, ie, around the year 2500 BC and 1500 BC.
Nation's ancestors have had a pretty good civilization. They will understand how to farm better, seamanship and even astronomy. They also have a system of governance is simple and has a leader (king small). Arrival of Indian immigrants in the centuries before the end of Masihi introduced a system of governance that is more advanced (kingdom) to them, with Dewawarman was the first to introduce a model of governance that is more advanced. Dewawarman also continue and advance the territory under Aki Tirem.

Royal Hindu / Buddhist (0-1500).

Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in the main archipelago.
Borobudur in Java is a testament to the power of Dharma kingdoms in the archipelago.
When the start date of AD, the island was ruled by several Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms. Dharma religion spread by traders who sailed to the Indian archipelago. First Hindu kingdom in the archipelago, by Indian traders note is Dwipa Javanese kingdoms in Java that make up around 200 BC. When, after Yupa inscriptions, the oldest kingdom in the archipelago is air-dates Kutai Kingdom 400 BC.
In the period to 7 until the period to 14, there are two great kingdoms namely the kingdom of Srivijaya and Majapahit kingdom. First the kingdom of Srivijaya kingdom is that debuted unite the archipelago and formed a cultural reference. This is followed by the Javanese kingdom of Majapahit. Hindu influence that survived 14 centuries when Islam first entered the island toward Sumatra.


Tambayung kingdom Bintan Island Middle Ages 6 -7
First Srivijaya kingdom Mount Dempo
kingdom Keritang
Jambi Malay Kingdom / Kingdom of Dharmasraya / Old Malay Kingdom - Edinburgh
The scale royal Brak
Malay Peninsula
Ganga kingdom State
kingdom of Langkasuka
Kingdom of Pan Pan
Old Kedah kingdom
Kingdom of Chi Tu / Kingdom of Tanah Merah


kingdom Tarumanagara
Kingdom of Sunda Galuh
kingdom Isyana
Kalinga kingdom
Ancient Mataram Kingdom (Hindu)
Medang Kingdom
Kediri kingdom
kingdom Kanjuruhan
Javanese kingdom Dwipa
kingdom Singhasari
Majapahit Kingdom
kingdom of Padjadjaran
kingdom of Blambangan
Sailendra kingdom
Wijaya Kusuma kingdom in Karimunjawa
kingdom Sanjaya


Kutai Kingdom
Kingdom of Po Ni
Banjar Kingdom
Negara Daha
State kingdom Dipa
Kingdom of Cape Castle
Nan kingdom Sarunai
kingdom Kuripan


kingdom of Champa

Islamic empire (1500 - present).

Islamic kingdoms in the archipelago.

Islam first footprint in the archipelago around the period to 11 towards Sumatra if Samudra Pasai empire embraced Islam. The spread of Islam in the archipelago beginning traders do Arabic, Chinese, Indian and Persian. After that, the spread of Islam carried out by Islamic kingdoms country through marriage, local trade and warfare.
In the period to 14, Malacca sultanate developed into the center of the spread of Islam in the archipelago. After the fall of Malacca, the center of the spread of Islam switched to the Sultanate of Aceh in Sumatra. In the past period to 15, almost the entire archipelago had embraced Islam except on the island of Bali, the Philippines and some areas in Borneo, Sulawesi and East Java.


The scale Kepaksian Brak
Sultanate of Aceh
Sultanate shavings
Myrtle kingdom
Inner Kingdom of Six Parts
kingdom Indragiri
Sultanate of Riau-Lingga
Sultanate of Deli
Sultanate Jambi
Sultanate Pinang City
Sultanate Langkat
Sultanate Pagaruyung
Sultanate of Palembang
Sultanate Serdang
Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura


Sultanate Perlak
Malay Peninsula
kingdom Naning
Negeri Sembilan royal
Perlis royal
Sultanate of Johor
Sultanate of Kedah
Kelantan Sultanate
Perak Sultanate
Sultanate of Patani
Selangor Sultanate
Sultanate Terengganu
Malacca sultanate


Sultanate of Banten
Sultanate of Cirebon
Sultanate of Demak
Sultanate Pajang
Sultanate of Mataram
Sultanate Kartasura
Sumedang kingdom bans
Sultanate of Yogyakarta
Duchy Pakualaman


sultanate of Banjar
sultanate of Bulungan
sultanate of Brunei
Sambas sultanate
Pontianak Sultanate
Sultanate of Johor Balengkong
Gunung Tabur
sultanate Sambaliung


Government Wajo
Bone state
sultanate of Buton
sultanate of Gowa
sultanate Soppeng


Government Manila
sultanate of Maguindanao
sultanate of Sulu


sultanate of Ternate
sultanate of Tidore
sultanate baa

Bacan islands

Government Land Hitu
Nusa Tenggara


sultanate of Bima
sultanate Samawa

European colonization.

European colonization began when the Portuguese captured Malacca in 1511. In 1521, Ferdinand Magellan arrived in Cebu, the Philippines and make the island part of the Spanish empire. In 1565, the entire Philippines fell to Spain and named the Spanish East Indies. In 1602, the Dutch East India Company was established and in 1605, Ambon conquered the Dutch from the Portuguese. Britain also began to tread in the archipelago when Sir Francis Light made a verbal agreement with the Sultan of Kedah to get Penang. Dutch and English then compete to expand their influence in the country and this competition stops when the Anglo Dutch dimaterai 1824. This agreement and the Spanish colonization was a pivotal point in history where Nusantara started disintegrating, of a region united states according to some patron.


Age of Dutch East India Company (1602 - 1800)
Dutch period (1800 - 1942)


East India Company
British Malaya
North Borneo Chartered Company
Figure White


Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Malacca
Eastern Hindi Spanish


Japanese Empire / World War II (1942-1945).
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: 10 December 2014 at 19:20
Tag :  Do you know the history of the archipelago.
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Did you know Henry Dunant.

Jean Henri Dunant.Dunant as an old man
Born Jean Henri Dunant
May 8, 1828
Geneva, Switzerland
Died October 30, 1910 (age 82)
Heiden, Switzerland
Citizenship Switzerland, France.
Employment social activist, businessman, author
Known as founder of the Red Cross
Religion Calvinism (in the early years of his life)
nonreligious (later)
Parents Jean-Jacques Dunant
Antoinette Dunant-Colladon
Nobel Peace Prize (1901)
Jean Henri Dunant (born May 8, 1828 - died October 30, 1910 at the age of 82 years), which is also known by the name of Henry Dunant, was a Swiss businessman and social activist. When traveling for business in 1859, he witnessed the effects of the Battle of Solferino, a location which today is part of Italy. Memories and experiences that he wrote in a book entitled A Memory of Solferino (Memories of Solferino), which inspired the formation of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in 1863. The 1864 Geneva Convention was based on Dunant's ideas. In 1901, he received the first Nobel Peace Prize, together with Frédéric Passy.

Youth and education Dunant.

Dunant was born in Geneva, Switzerland, the first son of businessman Jean-Jacques Dunant and his wife Antoinette Dunant-Colladon. His family are adherents mashab Calvin ('' Calvinist '') are obedient and have a significant influence on society Geneva. Both parents stressed the importance of the value of social activities. His father was active helping orphans and inmates serving parole, while her social activities to help the sick and the poor.

Dunant grew during the religious awakening known as the Réveil. At the age of 18, he joined the Association of Charity Geneva (Geneva Society for Alms Giving). In the following year, with his friends, he founded the association called "Thursday Association", a group of young people without formal membership bonds to meet regularly to study the Bible and help the poor. He spent much of his free time to visit the prison and social activities. On November 30, 1852, Dunant founded the YMCA branch in Geneva. Three years later, he participated in the Paris meeting aimed at forming a YMCA became an international organization.

In 1849, when aged 21, Dunant was forced to leave the Calvin College (Collège Calvin) because of poor academic achievement. He then became an apprentice in the foreign exchange market called Lullin et Sautter. After his apprenticeship finished with good achievement, he was appointed as an employee of the bank.


In 1853, Dunant visited Algeria, Tunisia, and Sicily as assigned by companies that serve "colonies Setif", ie a company called Compagnie genevoise de Colonies de Sétif. Despite the lack of experience, Dunant successfully complete the assignment satisfactorily. Inspired by the travel experience, Dunant for the first time to write a book, which he titled Notice sur la Régence de Tunis (Story about Regensi in Tunisia). This book was published in 1858.

In 1856, Dunant founded the company that operates in the overseas colonies and, after obtaining land concessions from Algeria when it was under French occupation, he also founded the plantation and trading company called Société Financière corn et industrielle des Moulins des Mons -Djémila (Corporate Finance and Industry Grinding Mons-Djémila). However, land and water rights promised not being clearly defined, while the colonial authorities in Algeria also be less cooperative. Therefore, Dunant decided to ask for help directly to the Emperor Napoleon III of France, which when it was in Lombardi with his troops. France was fighting on the side of Piedmont-Sardinia against Austria, which when it occupied much of the region today called Italy. Napoleon's headquarters is located in the small town of Solferino. Dunant wrote a book whose content is full of flattery and praise for Napoleon III for he had given to the emperor. Then he traveled to Solferino to meet personally with Napoleon III.

Battle of Solferino.

Dunant arrived in Solferino on the evening of June 24, 1859, just as the battle between the two sides had just finished. About 38 thousand soldiers lying on the battlefield in a state of wounded, dying, or dead, and there had been no significant effort made to provide care to them. In a state of shocked at the sight, Dunant took the initiative to mobilize the local civilian population, especially women, to provide aid to the wounded and sick soldiers. Because the supply of equipment and medicines needed inadequate, Dunant himself arranged the purchase of the required material and helped set up a makeshift hospital. He managed to convince local residents to serve the injured regardless of which side they fought, in accordance with the slogan "Tutti fratelli" (We are all brothers) are created by women from the town of Castiglione delle Stiviere not far from that place. He also managed to persuade the French to liberate doctors that their captive Austria.

Red Cross.

Upon his return to Geneva in early July, Dunant decided to write a book about his experience, which he later gave the title Un Souvenir de Solferino (Memories of Solferino). This book was published in 1862 by the number of 1,600 copies, printed on Dunant's own expense. In this book, Dunant depicts the battle that happens, the various costs of the fighting, and the chaotic circumstances caused. He also put forward the idea of the need to establish a neutral organization to provide care to wounded soldiers. This book he shared with many political and military leaders in Europe.

Dunant also embark on a journey across Europe to promote his ideas. The book received a very positive response. President of the Geneva Society for Public Welfare (Geneva Association for Public Welfare), which is a lawyer named Gustave Moynier, lift this book with suggestions Dunant in it as a topic of its meeting on February 9, 1863. The members of these organizations assess posals Dunant's proposal and provide a positive assessment. They then formed a committee consisting of five people to explore further the possibility of realizing the ideas Dunant, and Dunant was appointed as a member of this committee. These four other members of this committee is to Gustave Moynier, the Swiss army general named Henri Dufour, and two doctors were respectively named Louis Appia and Théodore Maunoir. The Committee held its first meeting on February 17, 1863, which is now regarded as the date of the founding of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

From the beginning, Moynier and Dunant disagree and wrangled over the vision and plan their own, and their disagreement was increasingly large. Dunant Moynier considered the idea of the need for protection set neutrality for the caregiver as difficult to accept the idea that sense as well as advising Dunant to not insist impose the concept. However, Dunant continued to advocate the establishment in every trip and in every conversation with officials of high-level political and military. It's getting mempersengit personal conflict between Moynier, who wears a pragmatic approach to the project, and Dunant, which is a visionary idealist among the five members of the Committee. In the end, Moynier tried to attack and thwart Dunant when Dunant run for the position of chairman of the Committee.

In October 1863, 14 countries participated in the meeting organized by the Committee in Geneva to discuss the improvement of care for wounded soldiers. However, Dunant himself only became head of protocol at the meeting as a result of efforts to minimize his role Moynier. A year later, on August 22, 1864, a diplomatic conference organized by the Swiss Parliament led to the signing of the First Geneva Convention by 12 countries. For this conference was, Dunant only served as a regulator of accommodation for the participants.

Forgotten past.

Business Dunant in Algeria declined, partly because of his devotion to the ideals of humanistic own. In April 1867, the bankruptcy of the financial firm Crédit Genevois led to a scandal involving Dunant. He was forced to declare bankruptcy and convicted by the Geneva Trade Court on August 17, 1868 on deceptive practices in the bankruptcy case. His family and many of his friends are very affected by Crédit Genevois bankrutnya because they invested heavily in this company. Society in Geneva, a city with a deep-rooted tradition Calvin, became upset and excited that emerged calls for Dunant resigned from the International Committee of the Red Cross.

On August 25, 1868, he resigned from his post as Secretary of the Committee and, on September 8, he is completely removed from the Committee. Moynier, who became President of the Committee since 1864, played a major role in getting rid of the Committee Dunant.

In February 1868, Dunant's mother died. At the end of that year, Dunant was also expelled from the YMCA. In March 1867, he left his hometown, Geneva, and never go back there again. In the following years, Moynier apparently trying to use his influence to ensure that Dunant not to receive help or support from his friends. For example, the gold medal prize Sciences Morales at the Paris World Fair not be given to Dunant as planned, but given to Moynier, Dufour, and Dunant together so that all the prize money is rightfully Committee. Napoleon III's bid to take over half of Dunant's debt obligations to the terms of friends Dunant guarantee repayment of the other half was also thwarted by Moynier effort.

Dunant moved to Paris and lived there in a state of lack. However, he continues to embody the idea and plan of humanity. During the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), he founded the Joint Humanitarian Aid Association ('' Allgemeine Fürsorgegesellschaft '') and, shortly afterwards, he founded the Joint Alliance for Order and Civilization ('' Allianz für Allgemeine und Ordnung Zivilisation ''). Dunant argue about the need for the disarmament talks and the need to set up an international court to mediate international conflicts. Later, he sought the formation of the library world, an idea which has echoes in various projects in the future, among other UNESCO.

In the never-ending effort to advocate and realize ideas, Dunant increasingly ignoring his personal financial situation so that he is getting in debt and shunned by his acquaintances. Although appointed as an honorary member of the Red Cross Society of Austria, the Netherlands, Sweden, Prussia, and Spain, he was almost forgotten in the course of official Red Cross Movement, even when the movement is growing rapidly to other countries. Dunant lived in poverty and move where between 1874-1886, including Stuttgart, Rome, Korfu, Basel, and Karlsruhe. In Stuttgart, Dunant met students at the University Tübingan (Tübingen University) named Rudolf Müller and then close friends with him. In 1881, together with a number of friends from Stuttgart, Dunant for the first time go to Heiden, a resort village in Switzerland. In 1887, while living in London, he began receiving monthly financial assistance from a number of distant relatives. It allows him to live in a more secure financial condition. Dunant moved to Heiden in July 1887 and stayed in the village for the rest of his life. Since April 30 1892, he was living in hospitals and nursing homes, led by Dr. Hermann Altherr.

In Heiden, he met a young teacher named Wilhelm Sonderegger and his wife Susanna. They encouraged him to record his life experiences. Sonderegger's wife founded the Red Cross branch in Heiden and, in 1890, Dunant became honorary president of the branch. With the Sonderegger, Dunant hoped to promote his ideas further, including publishing a new edition of his book. However, their friendship later became strained by Dunant catapult unwarranted accusations that Sonderegger, along with Moynier in Geneva, conspire against it. Sonderegger died in 1904, at the age of just reached 42 years. Despite their strained relationship, Dunant was deeply moved by the death Sonderegger was unexpected. Admiration Wilhelm and Susanna Sonderegger on Dunant, who kept them feel even though Dunant hurl accusations, passed on to their children. In 1935, their son, namely René, published a collection of letters written to his father Dunant.

Return the public mind.

In September, 1895, Georg Baumberger, the chief editor of Die Ostschweiz, a newspaper published in St. Gall, wrote an article about the founder of the Red Cross, who had met and talked with him when they were strolling in Heiden a month earlier. The article entitled "Henri Dunant, founder of the Red Cross" (Henri Dunant, the founder of the Red Cross) and appeared in a magazine published by the German pictorial, Über Land und Meer. With this article immediately reproduced in various other media across Europe. The article received rave reviews so Dunant back attention and public support. He then received the Prize Binet-Fendt Switzerland and a letter of Pope Leo XIII. Thanks to the assistance of the Russian czar's widow, Maria Feodorovna namely, and other donations from various parties, Dunant's financial situation has greatly improved.

In 1897, Rudolf Müller, who was already working as a teacher in Stuttgart, wrote a book about the origins of the Red Cross. The contents of this book changed the official history of the Red Cross by emphasizing the role Dunant. This book also includes the text "Memories of Solferino." Dunant began Bertha von Suttner corresponded with and write a lot of articles and other writings. He was especially active in writing about women's rights. In 1897, Dunant facilitated the establishment of the "Green Cross" (Green Cross), an organization of women's short-lived and only active in Brussels.

Nobel Peace Prize.

In 1901, Dunant received the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded the first ever, that for his role in founding the International Red Cross Movement and initiate the process of formation of the Geneva Convention. Norwegian military physician Hans Daae, who had received a copy of Müller's writing a book, advocated Dunant case to the Nobel Committee. The prize is awarded to a joint gift Dunant and Frédéric Passy, a French peace activist who founded the Peace League and active with Dunant in the Alliance for Order and Civilization (Alliance for Order and Civilization). Official congratulations Dunant finally received from the International Committee of the Red Cross represents the rehabilitation of Dunant:

"Nothing is more worthy to receive this honor, because it is you who forty years ago founded the international organization of humanitarian aid to the wounded on the battlefield. Without you, the Red Cross, which is the supreme humanitarian achievement of the nineteenth century, would never have been attempted. "
Moynier and the International Committee of the Red Cross as a whole was also nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. Although Dunant gained widespread support among the selection process, he remains a controversial candidate. Some argue that the Red Cross and the Geneva Conventions makes war more attractive and tempting to alleviate some of the suffering caused by war. Therefore, Müller in his letter to the Nobel Committee expressed the opinion that the prize should be divided between Dunant and Passy, who had become the leading candidate to be the sole recipient of the prize in the debate that occurred during the selection process. Müller also suggested that if the Dunant deemed worthy to receive the Nobel Prize, the prize needs to be given to him in view of his advanced age and health condition has deteriorated.

Nobel Committee decision to split the prize between Passy, a man of peace, and Dunant, a humanitarian, a precedent for the requirements regarding the selection of the Nobel Peace Prize recipient a significant impact on subsequent years. One part in Nobel's will stated that the peace prize to be given to those who seek to reduce or eliminate the troops and equipment (standing armies) or attempt to direct SCARA promote peace conference. This is what makes Passy naturally selected to be recipients of the prize thanks to his efforts in the field of peace. Awarding the Nobel Prize for efforts in the humanitarian field alone would be a very striking, and it is considered by some parties as overly broad interpretation on Nobel's will. However, the other part in Nobel's will assign prizes for the best performers in improving "human brotherhood" (the brotherhood of people). It could be interpreted more generally as a message that humanitarian efforts as done by Dunant was also linked to peace efforts. Nobel Peace Prize in subsequent years its many were put into one of two categories for the first time established by the 1901 decision of the Nobel Committee.

Hans Daae managed to put the prize money to be part Dunant, amounting to 104,000 Swiss francs, in a bank in Norway and prevent the money accessible to creditors Dunant. Dunant himself never wore the slightest of money in his life.

Death and legacy.

Among several other awards received by Dunant in subsequent years was an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, which he received in 1903. Dunant lived in a nursing home in Heiden until his death. In the last years of his life, he suffered from depression and fear (paranoia) that he keeps sought by creditors and Moynier. Dunant even sometimes urged the nursing home cook to taste first food rations before him so that he is protected from the possibility of being poisoned. Though he still believes Christians, Dunant in the last years of his life refused and attacked Calvinism and organized religion (organized religion) in general.

According to the care of her interpreter, the last action performed in his life Dunant was sent a copy of a book written by Müller to the queen of Italy accompanied by a letter of introduction from Dunant himself. Dunant died on October 30, 1910, and his last words are "Where the disappearance of humanity?" Dunant died just two months after his nemesis, Moynier. Although the ICRC congratulated on giving the Nobel Prize Dunant, the two rivals never reconciled. 

As he wishes, Dunant was buried without ceremony in the Sihlfeld Cemetery in Zurich. In his will, he donated money to provide a "free bed" in a nursing home in Heiden, which should always be available for the region's poor. He also gave some money, through a notary deed, to his friends and to charitable organizations in Norway and Switzerland. The rest of the money he gave to the creditors so that most of the debt is paid off. Dunant's inability to fully repay its debts become a big burden to him until the day of his death.

Birthday, May 8, is celebrated as the Day of the Red Cross and Red Crescent World ('' World Red Cross and Red Crescent Day ''). Heiden nursing home that used to contain it is now a museum of Henry Dunant. In Geneva and other cities there are a lot of roads, courts, and schools are named after him. Henry Dunant Medal, which is awarded every two years by the Standing Committee of the Red Cross Movement and the International Red Cross, the highest award bestowed by the Movement. Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: December 10, 2014 at 18:30
Tag : Did you know Henry Dunant.
Code : 42S4EUXRR3UM

Some of the greatest empire that ever existed.

As if the greatest empire in the world? Do you already know the biggest empire? maybe some of you already know, and some also may not know. A royal enlarge the power to expand its territory. A great empire views of the area, many residents, how long the kingdom it stands, the kingdom's economic and other factors such as laws and laws.

Some of the kingdom of the world's largest ever established :

Roman Empire (27 BC-1453).

This kingdom has type Aristokastik and territory covers around the Mediterranean and Europe. The kingdom began to fall apart when a lot of the civil war going on. System of government changed from Republic to Empire when the election of a dictator Julius Caesar in 44 BC. Began when the expanding Roman territory republican system of government. However, when the system of government is the kingdom, the Roman increasingly advanced and reached its heyday during the emperor Trajan breadth sampa 6.5 million square kilometers. Due to the length of this royal stand, religion, and all that is in this kingdom existed until today.

The Akkadian Empire (2400 BC-2200 BC).

The Akkadian kingdom centered in Akkad or ancient Iraq. Akkadian nation is the ancestor of the Babylonian and Assyrian. The heyday of the country in 24 and 22 BC. This kingdom is considered as the first monarch to exist on earth with a total area of 0.8 million square kilometers.

United Kingdom.

The United Kingdom is a kingdom that has a very broad area that until reaching 33 million square km. This kingdom is very broad because it consists of domini, colonies, prektoran and mandate. In 1922, 1/4 of the Earth's population is in the British empire with a total of 450 million inhabitants. British Empire has the largest military force in history.

The Kingdom of Ethiopia

The kingdom was established in the year 1270 when the dynasty Solomonid dropped Zagwe dynasty and declared King Solomon as king for Habesha population. From there, the dynasty became the master Ethiopian empire. Approaching 1895, Italy declared war on the Kingdom of Ethiopia. In 1935, Benito Mussolini led Italy to attack Ethiopian troops for 7 months and finally Italy announced his victory. Years 1936-1941, the Italian master of this region.

The Kingdom of Kanem

Kanem kingdom stands around 700 and lasted until 1376. The kingdom was located this area now called Chad, Libya, and most of Niger. Zaghawa population was first declared the capital in the year 700 in the city N'jimi. The kingdom was divided into two dynasties: Duguwa and Sayfawa who brought Islam into this kingdom. Bulala occupied N'jimi and eventually take over the kingdom of Kanem.

The Holy Roman Empire

Holy Roman Empire is a fraction of the Western Roman Empire at the command directly from the Roman Catholic Church. Its name is derived from the fact that the emperor selected based on elections and embedded crown by the pope in Rome. The empire survived from the year 962 until 1806. Empire began when Otto I declare himself as King of Germany. This imperial master 300 region. In 1648, the kingdom has fragmented.


Silla was founded in 57 BC and include North and South Korea. Kin Park Hyeokgeose the first king and master the four kingdoms along the Korean Peninsula. And the Chinese Tang Dynasty and the Kingdom of Silla fought in the 7th century but Silla can defeat it.

The Kingdom of the Republic of Venice

Venice is famous for its royal navy which has controlled the region from Europe to the Mediterranean with important cities such as Cyprus and Crete in it. Venice ruled 1,100 years, from 697 to 1797. The kingdom was established when the Western Roman Empire fell into the hands of Italy. The Kingdom of Piedmont fall when the city fell into the hands of France under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte. When Napoleon give an ultimatum, the Doge Ludovico Manin surrendered in 1797 and Venice was under the rule of Napoleon.

The Kingdom of Kush

Kingdom of Kush survived from 1070 BC to AD 350, now known as the Republic of the Sudan. The kingdom was highly dependent on wood as the main export commodities because it is difficult to trade in iron and gold. Allegedly this empire collapse under attack from the desert tribes, but scientists believe the collapse due to deforestation is done so that their wood supply is running low. So to say the Kingdom of Kush undermines itself by removing timber for the industry without any mitigation.

Eastern Roman Empire

Roman Empire is not only the most famous work in the history of the kingdom, but also the longest. This kingdom survived in various eras, but precisely from 27 BC until 1453 to last for 1480 years old. This royal master the Mediterranean region to Italy. Western Roman Empire broke out in 476 when Romulus Augustus rid Germany of the seat of empire, but the Eastern Roman Empire survived.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
DatePublished: December 10, 2014 at 17:35
 Tag : Some of the greatest empire that ever existed.
Code : 42S4EUXRR3UM